Monograph

Rationalized and Extended Democracy

Inserting Public Scientists into the Legislative/Executive Framework, Reinforcing Citizens’ Participation
  • Giovanni Molteni Tagliabue,

In this book, Giovanni Molteni Tagliabue asserts that the realization of the values and the implementation of the objectives as indicated in democratic constitutions (political, social rights and the people’s welfare) are hindered by structural defects of the legislative/government architecture and processes. Expertise and science have scarce say in politics and policy. The author suggests an innovative view through the ‘REDemo Project’. 1. Rationalization: the insertion of public scientists into legislative/executive mechanisms, with the creation in each democracy of a National Scientific Assembly – parallel to the extant partypolitical Chamber of Representatives – consisting of academic experts and researchers (legal scholars, political analysts, economists, sociologists, land/urban planners, industry/infrastructure designers, biotechnologists, agronomists, ecologists, educationists, specialists on public health, on cultural heritage, etc.) elected by universal suffrage; 2. Extension: the broadening of the institutions of direct democracy and reinforcement of the electorate as decision-maker of last resort. So the main themes and objectives of the book are an examination of the major flaws in today’s democracies (pars destruens) and a proposal for a renewed institutional framework (pars construens).

  • Keywords:
  • Democratic Reform,
  • Science and Politics,
  • Science Speaks to Power,
  • Technocracy,
  • Expertise and Policy,
+ Show more
Purchase
Giovanni Molteni Tagliabue is an Italian philosopher and an independent researcher, peer-reviewer for scientific journals. He is the author of several papers on the sociopolitical, regulatory/legislative, psychological, ethical and epistemological aspects of agrifood biotechnologies: topics covered in his comprehensive book Genetically Modified Organisms: A Scientific-Political Dialogue on a Meaningless Meme (Cambridge Scholars Publishing 2023). In 2017 he was awarded the Innoplanta Science Prize (Germany).
  1. 3M. 2020. State of Science Index Survey 2020. https://www.3m.com/3M/en_US/3m-forward-us/about-the-survey (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  2. Abbott, Alison. 2017. “Researchers frustrated by Italian misconduct probe.” Nature 545: 13-14. DOI: 10.1038/545013a
  3. Achen, Cristopher H., Bartels, Larry M. 20172 (2016). Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government. With Afterword on the 2016 USA presidential elections. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. DOI: 10.2307/j.ctvc7770q
  4. Ackerman, Bruce. 1989. “Constitutional Politics/Constitutional Law.” The Yale Law Journal 99: 453-547. DOI: 10.2307/796754
  5. Alberts, Bruce et al. 2015. “Self-correction in science at work.” Science 348: 1420-2. DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3847
  6. Alesina, Alberto, Roubini, Nouriel, and Gerald D. Cohen. 1997. Political Cycles and the Macroeconomy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/5437.001.0001
  7. Alkin, Marvin C., and Jean A. King. 2017. “Definitions of Evaluation Use and Misuse, Evaluation Influence, and Factors Affecting Use.” American Journal of Evaluation 38: 434-450. DOI: 10.1177/1098214017717015
  8. Allesina, Stefano. 2011. “Measuring Nepotism through Shared Last Names: The Case of Italian Academia.” PLoS ONE 6: e21160. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021160
  9. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 2018. Perceptions of Science in America: A Report from the Public Face of Science Initiative. Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. ISBN 0-87724-120-1
  10. Arendt, Hannah. (19652) 2016. On Revolution. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0571327416.
  11. Arendt, Hannah. 1967. “Truth and Politics.” The New Yorker, 25 February 1967, 49-88.
  12. Reprinted with minor changes in Truth: Engagements Across Philosophical Traditions, edited by José Medina, and David Wood, 295-313. Maiden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005. DOI: 10.1002/9780470776407
  13. Aristotle (circa 330-322 BC) 1891. Constitution of Athens, trans. Thomas J. Dymes. London: Seeley and Co. https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/aristotle-constitution-of-athens (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  14. Arneson, Richard J. 2003. “Defending the Purely Instrumental Account of Democratic Legitimacy.” Journal of Political Philosophy 11: 122-132. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9760.00170
  15. Arnold, Douglas R. 2016 “The Electoral Connection, Age 40.” In Governing in a Polarized Age: Elections, Parties, and Political Representation in America, edited by Alan S. Gerber, and Eric Schickler, 15-34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781316154977.002
  16. Aron, Raymond. (1955) 2001. The Opium of the Intellectuals. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781315133591
  17. Aronson, Jay. 2003. “Book Review: Science, Democracy, and Truth, by Philip Kitcher; Science, Technology, and Democracy, edited by Daniel Lee Kleinman.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 28: 162-8. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1558027 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  18. Bader, Veit, and Matteo Bonotti. 2014. “Introduction: Parties, partisanship and political theory.” Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 17: 253-66. Special issue: Parties, partisanship and political theory. Also published in volume: London: Routledge, 2014. DOI: 10.4324/9781315760780
  19. Bågenholm, Andreas. 2013. “Throwing the rascals out? The electoral effects of corruption allegations and corruption scandals in Europe 1981-2011.” Crime, Law and Social Change 60: 595-609. DOI: 10.1007/s10611-013-9482-6
  20. Ball, Philip. 2021. “Should scientists run the country?” The Guardian, 27 September 2021. www.theguardian.com/books/2021/sep/27/should-scientists-run-the-country (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  21. Barber, Sotirios A. 2003. Welfare and the Constitution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  22. Barrotta, Pierluigi, and Eleonora Montuschi. 2018. “The Dam project: Who are the experts? A philosophical lesson from the Vajont disaster.” In Science and Democracy. Controversies and Conflicts, edited by Pierluigi Barrotta, and Giovanni Scarafile, 17-34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018. Summarized as ch. 3.5 in Barrotta, Pierluigi. 2018. Scientists, Democracy and Society: A Community of Inquirers. Cham (Switzerland): Springer International, 72-6. DOI: 10.1075/cvs.13
  23. Baumgartner, Frank R. et al. 2009. Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226039466.001.0001
  24. Bell, Daniel. (19993). “Who Will Rule? Politicians and Technocrats in the Post-Industrial Society.” Chapter 6 in The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, 339-368. New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465012817
  25. Bell, Daniel A. 2015. The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Several papers from the “Symposium: On D. Bell’s The China Model” in Philosophy and Public Issues 7(1). http://fqp.luiss.it/category/numero/2017-7-1 (retrieved 2023-07-05). DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691173047.001.0001
  26. Bellamy, Richard. 1994 “‘Dethroning Politics’: Liberalism, Constitutionalism and Democracy in the Thought of F. A. Hayek.” British Journal of Political Science 24: 419-41. DOI: 10.1017/s0007123400006943
  27. Bellamy, Richard Paul. 2006. “Introduction.” In Constitutionalism and Democracy, edited by Richard Paul Bellamy, xi-xlviii. Abingdon (UK): Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781315095455
  28. Bendor, Jonathan. (ca. 1998-2010) 2010. Bounded Rationality and Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press (Collection of essays). DOI: 10.1525/9780520945517
  29. Beniers, Klaas J., and Robert Dur. 2007. “Politicians’ Motivation, Political Culture, and Electoral Competition.” International Tax and Public Finance 14: 29-54. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.557722
  30. Bergman, Martin, and Gustav Bohlin. 2018. VA Barometer 2018/19 – VA report 2018:6. Stockholm: Vetenskap & Allmänhet. https://v-a.se/2019/02/va-barometer-2018-2019-in-english (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  31. Bernal, J. D. 1966. “The Scientific Estate.” (Review of Price 1966.) Nature 209: 115-6. DOI: 10.1038/209115a0
  32. Bernstein, Marver H. 1955. Regulating Business by Independent Commission. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. DOI: 10.1515/9781400878789
  33. Bertsou, Eri (dir.). 2018. “The Technocratic Challenge to Democracy: Experts, Elites and the People.” ECPR 2018 Joint Sessions of Workshops, Nicosia, 10-14 April 2018. https://ecpr.eu/Events/PanelDetails.aspx?PanelID=6812&EventID=112 (This webpage contains an introduction to the meeting and the links to 11 paper abstracts) (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  34. Bertsou, Eri. 2020. “Conclusion–Technocracy and democracy: Friends or foes?” In Bertsou and Caramani (eds.) 2020a, 247-70. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429342165-18
  35. Bertsou, Eri, and Daniele Caramani (eds.). 2020a. The Technocratic Challenge to Democracy. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429342165
  36. Bertsou, Eri, and Daniele Caramani. 2020b. “People Haven’t Had Enough of Experts: Technocratic Attitudes among Citizens in Nine European Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 66: 5-23. DOI: 10.1111/ajps.12554
  37. Besley, John C. et al. 2020 “Exploring scholars’ public engagement goals in Canada and the United States.” Public Understanding of Science 29: 855-67. Popular article: Besley, John C. 2020. “Scientists don’t share their findings for fun – they want their research to make a difference.” The Conversation, 21 September 2020. https://theconversation.com/scientists-dont-share-their-findings-for-fun-they-want-their-research-to-make-a-difference-146267 (retrieved 2023-07-05). DOI: 10.1177/0963662520950671
  38. Bini Smaghi, Lorenzo. 2013. Austerity: European Democracies Against the Wall. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS). ISBN 978-94-6138-330-3
  39. Birch, Anthony Harold. 20073. The Concepts and Theories of Modern Democracy. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203963654
  40. Blinder, Alan S. 1997. “Is Government Too Political?” Foreign Affairs 76: 115-26. DOI: 10.2307/20048280
  41. Blinder, Alan S. 2018. Advice and Dissent: Why America Suffers When Economics and Politics Collide. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465094172
  42. Bobbio, Norberto. (1984) 1987. The Future of Democracy: a Defense of the Rules of the Game. Translated by Roger Griffin, Edited and Introduced by Richard Bellamy. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1583-7
  43. Bodmer, Walter et al. 1985. The public understanding of science. London: The Royal Society. ISBN 0 85403 2576
  44. Bogenschneider, Karen, and Thomas J. Corbett. 2010. Evidence-based policymaking: Insights from policy-minded researchers and research-minded policymakers. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415805834
  45. Bohman, James. 1996. Public Deliberation: Pluralism, Complexity, and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN-13 978-0262024105
  46. Bonotti, Matteo. 2017. Partisanship and Political Liberalism in Diverse Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198739500.001.0001
  47. Bosco, Anna, and Duncan McDonnell. 2012. “Introduction: The Monti government and the downgrade of Italian parties.” Italian Politics 27: 37-56. (Volume “From Berlusconi to Monti”) DOI: 10.3167/ip.2012.270103
  48. Böttcher, Constanze. 2015. “Can academics entering politics bring more evidence into policy?” EuroScientist, 9 December 2015. www.euroscientist.com/can-academics-entering-politics-bring-more-evidence-into-policy (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  49. Boudreaux, Donald J., and Dwight R. Lee. 1997. “Politics as the Art of Confined Compromise.” Cato Journal 16: 365-81. https://www.cato.org/cato-journal/winter-1997 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  50. Botterill, Linda Courtenay, and Andrew Hindmoor. 2012. “Turtles all the way down: Bounded rationality in an evidence-based age.” Policy Studies 33: 367-79. DOI: 10.1080/01442872.2011.626315
  51. Bouricius, Terrill G. 2013. “Democracy Through Multi-Body Sortition: Athenian Lessons for the Modern Day.” Journal of Public Deliberation 9: article 11. DOI: 10.16997/jdd.156
  52. Boykin, Scott A. 2010. “Hayek on Spontaneous Order and Constitutional Design.” The Independent Review 15: 19-34. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3828167
  53. Brennan, Jason. 2011. “The Right to a Competent Electorate.” The Philosophical Quarterly 61: 700-24. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9213.2011.699.x
  54. Brennan, Jason. 2016. “Against Democracy.” The National Interest, 6 September 2016. http://nationalinterest.org/feature/against-democracy-17605 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  55. Brennan, Jason. 20172. Against Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. DOI: 10.1515/9781400888399
  56. Brennan, Jason. 2021. “In Defense of Epistocracy: Enlightened Preference Voting.” In The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology, edited by Michael Hannon and Jeroen de Ridder, 374-83. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429326769-45
  57. Breyer, Stephen G. 19952. Breaking the Vicious Circle: Toward Effective Risk Regulation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995. ISBN 9780674081154. (Paperback revised ed.; 1st ed. hardback 1993.)
  58. Bright, Liam Kofi. 2019. Review of Goodin and Spiekermann 2018. Economics and Philosophy, 2019, 1-6. DOI: 10.1017/S0266267119000142
  59. Broder, David. 20012. Democracy Derailed: Initiative Campaigns and the Power of Money. New York: Harcourt, 2001. ISBN-13 978-0156014106. (2nd ed. with new Afterword; 1st ed. 2000.)
  60. Brown, Mark B. 2009. Science in Democracy: Expertise, Institutions, and Representation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262013246.001.0001
  61. Brown, Mark B. 2013. “Book review” of Science in a Democratic Society, by Philip Kitcher. Minerva 51: 389-397. DOI: 10.1007/s11024-013-9233-y
  62. Bryant, Sophie. 1908. “The Platonic Principle of Aristocracy in the Modern State.” In “The Place of Experts in Democracy. A Symposium.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, 9: 61-84. DOI: 10.1093/aristotelian/9.1.61
  63. Buchanan, James M. 2003. “Public Choice: Politics Without Romance.” Policy, The Quarterly Review of The Centre for Independent Studies 19: 13-18. www.cis.org.au/app/uploads/2015/04/images/stories/policy-magazine/2003-spring/2003-19-3-james-m-buchanan.pdf (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  64. Buchanan, James M., and Gordon Tullock. (1962) 1999. The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund. ISBN 978-0-86597-218-6
  65. Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, and Alastair Smith. 2011. The Dictator’s Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is Almost Always Good Politics. Philadelphia, PA: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1610390446
  66. Burke, Edmund. (1854) 1854-1856. “Speech to the electors of Bristol.” In The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. 6 vols. London: Henry G. Bohn. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch13s7.html (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  67. Burnheim, John. 20062. Is Democracy Possible? The Alternative to Electoral Politics. Sidney: Sidney University Press. DOI: 10.30722/sup.9781920898427
  68. Cagé, Julia (20202) The Price of Democracy: How Money Shapes Politics and What to Do about It. Harvard University Press. DOI: 10.4159/9780674246133
  69. Cain, Daylian M., Loewenstein, George, and Don A. Moore. 2005. “The Dirt on Coming Clean: Perverse Effects of Disclosing Conflicts of Interest.” Journal of Legal Studies 34: 1-25. DOI: 10.1086/426699
  70. Cairney, Paul. 2016. The Politics of Evidence-Based Policy Making. London: Palgrave. DOI: 10.1057/978-1-137-51781-4
  71. Cairney, Paul. 20192. Understanding Public Policy: Theories and Issues. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781137545183
  72. Callander, Steven, and Simon Wilkie. 2007. “Lies, damned lies, and political campaigns.” Games and Economic Behavior 60: 262-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.geb.2006.12.003
  73. Callander, Steven, and David Raiha. 2017. “Durable Policy, Political Accountability, and Active Waste.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 12: 59-97. DOI: 10.1561/100.00016120
  74. Caplan, Bryan. 2006. “The Myth of the Rational Voter.” Cato Unbound, November 2006 (debate with David Estlund, Loren Lomasky, Jeffrey Friedman). www.cato-unbound.org/2006/11/05/bryan-caplan/myth-rational-voter (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  75. Carrington, Damian. 2021. “Fossil fuel industry gets subsidies of $11m a minute, IMF finds.” The Guardian, 6 October 2021. www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/oct/06/fossil-fuel-industry-subsidies-of-11m-dollars-a-minute-imf-finds (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  76. Cartwright, Nancy, and Jeremy Hardie. 2012. Evidence Based Policy: A Practical Guide to Doing It Better. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199841608.001.0001
  77. Caselli, Francesco, and Massimo Morelli. 2004. “Bad Politicians.” Journal of Public Economics 88: 759-82. DOI: 10.1016/s0047-2727(03)00023-9
  78. Castanho Silva, Bruno, Federico Vegetti, and Levente Littvay. 2017. “The Elite Is Up to Something: Exploring the Relation Between Populism and Belief in Conspiracy Theories.” Swiss Political Science Review 23: 423-43. DOI: 10.1111/spsr.12270
  79. Cattaneo, Elena, and Gilberto Corbellini. 2014. “Stem cells: Taking a stand against pseudoscience.” Nature 510: 333-5. DOI: 10.1038/510333a
  80. Cerovac, Ivan. 2020. Epistemic Democracy and Political Legitimacy. Cham (Switzerland): Palgrave Macmillan. [based on the author’s 2016 doctoral thesis: https://arts.units.it/handle/11368/2908039] (retrieved 2023-07-05). DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-44602-4
  81. Cheung, Chor-Yung. 2014. “Hayek on Nomocracy and Teleocracy: A Critical Assessment.” Cosmos + Taxis 1: 24-33. https://cosmosandtaxis.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/ct_1_2_cheung.pdf (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  82. Chrysis, Alexandros. 2018. ‘True Democracy’ as a Prelude to Communism: The Marx of Democracy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-57541-4
  83. Cicero, Quintus Tullius. (65-64 BC).1908-1909. On running for the Consulship (Commentariolum Petitionis). In The Letters of Cicero, in four volumes. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. London. George Bell and Sons. 1908-1909. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_running_for_the_Consulship (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  84. Cini, Lorenzo, and Andrea Felicetti. 2018. “Participatory deliberative democracy: toward a new standard for assessing democracy? Some insights into the Italian case.” Contemporary Italian Politics 10: 151-69. DOI: 10.1080/23248823.2018.1477239
  85. Clancy, Kelly A., and Benjamin Clancy. 2016. “Growing monstrous organisms: the construction of anti-GMO visual rhetoric through digital media.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 33: 279-92. DOI: 10.1080/15295036.2016.1193670
  86. Coady, David et al. 2019. Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates. International Monetary Fund Working Paper No. 19/89. DOI: 10.5089/9781484393178.001
  87. CoARA - Coalition for Advancing Research Assessment. 2022. “Agreement on Reforming Research Assessment.” https://coara.eu/agreement/the-agreement-full-text (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  88. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 202328. Procedural Manual. Rome: Secretariat of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. DOI: 10.4060/cc5042en
  89. Cohen, Adam. 2016. Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American Eugenics, and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0143109990
  90. Cohen, Joshua. 1986. “An Epistemic Conception of Democracy.” Ethics 97: 26-38. DOI: 10.1086/292815
  91. Coleman, Jules, and John Ferejohn. 1986. “Democracy and social choice.” Ethics 97: 6-25. DOI: 10.1086/292814
  92. Collingridge, David, and Colin Reeve. 1986. Science speaks to power: The Role of Experts in Policymaking. London: Pinter Publishers. ISBN 9780861876402
  93. Collins, Harry. 2014. Are We All Scientific Experts Now? Cambridge (UK): Polity. ISBN 978-0745682037
  94. Collins, Harry, and Robert Evans. 2017. Why Democracies Need Science. Cambridge (UK): Polity. ISBN 978-1509509607
  95. Collins, Harry et al. 2019. Experts and the Will of the People: Society, Populism and Science. London: Palgrave Pivot. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26983-8
  96. Christiano, Thomas. 2006-2015. “Democracy.” In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, 27 July 2006. Modified 5 February 2015. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/democracy (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  97. Christiano, Thomas. 2012. “Rational Deliberation Among Experts and Citizens.” In Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale, edited by John Parkinson and Jane Mansbridge, 27-51. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9781139178914.003
  98. Collier, David, and Steven Levitsky. 1997. “Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research.” World Politics 49: 430-51. DOI: 10.1353/wp.1997.0009
  99. Conant, James Bryant. 1951. Science and Common Sense. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300000474
  100. Corbett, Jack. 2015. “Someone has to do it: towards a practical defence of politicians.” Contemporary Politics 21: 468-84. DOI: 10.1080/13569775.2015.1013290
  101. Costa Pinto, António, Maurizio Cotta, and Pedro Tavares de Almeida. 2017. “Beyond Party Government? Technocratic Trends in Society and in the Executive.” In Technocratic Ministers and Political Leadership in European Democracies, edited by António Costa Pinto, Maurizio Cotta, and Pedro Tavares de Almeida, 1-27. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-62313-9_1
  102. Courant, Dimitri. 2019. “Sortition and Democratic Principles: A Comparative Analysis.” In Gastil and Wright (eds.) 2019, 229-48.
  103. Crouch, Colin. 2004. Post-Democracy. Cambridge (UK): Polity. ISBN 978-0745633145
  104. Crouch, Colin. 2020. Post-Democracy After the Crises. Cambridge (UK): Polity. ISBN 978-1509541560
  105. Dahl, Robert A. 1998. On Democracy. New Haven (CT): Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300076271
  106. Dal Bó, Ernesto. 2006. “Regulatory Capture: A Review.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22: 203-25. DOI: 10.1093/oxrep/grj013
  107. Delannoi, Gil, Oliver Dowlen, and Peter Stone. 2013. The Lottery as a Democratic Institution. Policy Institute, University of Dublin, Trinity College. ISBN 9781902585543
  108. Dewey, John. (1927) 2016. The Public and Its Problems: An Essay in Political Inquiry. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0804011662
  109. Dhami, Sanjit, Ali al-Nowaihi, and Cass R. Sunstein. 2019. Heuristics and Public Policy: Decision Making Under Bounded Rationality. Harvard Public Law Working Paper No. 19-04. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3198739
  110. Di Paola, Marcello, and Dale Jamieson. 2018. “Climate Change and the Challenges to Democracy.” University of Miami Law Review 72: 369-424. https://repository.law.miami.edu/umlr/vol72/iss2/5 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  111. Di Virgilio, Aldo, and Claudio M. Radaelli. 2013. “Introduction: The Year of the External Podestà.” Italian Politics 28: 37-57. DOI: 10.3167/ip.2013.280103
  112. Doležalová, Jitka. 2011. “The Political-Budget Cycle in Countries of the European Union.” Review of Economic Perspectives 11: 12-36. DOI: 10.2478/v10135-011-0005-z
  113. Douglas, Heather. 2005. “Inserting the Public into Science.” In Maasen and Weingart (eds.) 2005, 153-67. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3754-6_9
  114. Downs, Anthony. (1957) 1997. An Economic Theory of Democracy. Boston (MA): Addison-Wesley. ISBN 9780060417505
  115. Dryzek, John. 2000. Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/019925043X.001.0001
  116. Dryzek, John S. et al. 2019. “The crisis of democracy and the science of deliberation.” Science 363: 1144-6. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw2694
  117. Durant, Darrin. 2013. “The Undead Linear Model of Expertise.” In Heazle and Kane (eds.), 17-38. DOI: 10.4324/9781315688060-2
  118. Dusek, Val. 2006. “Technocracy.” In Philosophy of Technology: An Introduction, 38-52. Maiden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1405111621
  119. Dworkin, Ronald. 1996. “The Curse of American Politics.” The New York Review of Books, 17 October 1996. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1996/10/17/the-curse-of-american-politics (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  120. Dworkin, Ronald. 1997. Freedom’s Law: The Moral Reading of the American Constitution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674319288
  121. Dworkin, Ronald. 2010a. “The ‘Devastating’ Decision.” The New York Review of Books, 25 February 2010. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2010/02/25/the-devastating-decision/ (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  122. Dworkin, Ronald. 2010b. “The Decision That Threatens Democracy.” The New York Review of Books, 13 May 2010. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2010/05/13/decision-threatens-democracy (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  123. EASAC - European Academies’ Science Advisory Council. 2017. Genome editing: scientific opportunities, public interests and policy options in the European Union. EASAC policy report 31. https://easac.eu/publications/details/the-regulation-of-genome-edited-plants-in-the-european-union (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  124. Edelman. 2017. Trust Barometer 2017: Executive Summary. New York: Edelman. https://www.edelman.com/trust2017 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  125. Edelman. 2019. Trust Barometer 2019. New York: Edelman. https://www.edelman.com/trust/2019-trust-barometer (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  126. Edelman. 2020. Trust Barometer 2020: Global Report. New York: Edelman. https://www.edelman.com/trust/2020-trust-barometer (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  127. Efthyvoulou, Georgios. 2011. “Political budget cycles in the European Union and the impact of political pressures.” Public Choice 153: 295-327. DOI: 10.1007/s11127-011-9795-x
  128. Elkins, Zachary. 2018. “Is the Sky Falling? Constitutional Crises in Historical Perspective.” In Graber, Levinson and Tushnet (eds.) 2018, Chapter 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/law/9780190888985.003.0004
  129. Elster, Jon. 2013. Securities Against Misrule: Juries, Assemblies, Elections. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9781139382762
  130. Engelen, Ewald et al. 2012 “Misrule of Experts? The Financial Crisis as Elite Debacle.” Economy and Society 41: 360-82. DOI: 10.1080/03085147.2012.661634
  131. Engelstad, Fredrik. 1989. “The Assignment of Political Office by Lot.” Social Science Information 28: 23-50. Reprinted as Chapter 10 in Stone 2011. DOI: 10.1177/053901889028001002
  132. Estlund, David. 2003. “Why not Epistocracy?”. In Desire, Identity and Existence. Essays in Honor of T.M. Penner, edited by Naomi Reshotko, 53-69. New York: Academia Printing and Publishing. DOI: 10.2307/j.ctv10kmfns.8
  133. Estlund, David M. 2008. Democratic Authority: A Philosophical Framework. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. DOI: 10.1515/9781400831548
  134. European Commission Joint Research Centre and American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2009. Evidence-based policy versus policy-biased evidence: the challenge of feeding scientific advice into policy-making. Ispra (Italy), 27 October 2009.
  135. European Commission. 2010. Science and Technology Report. Special Eurobarometer 340, June 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_340_en.pdf (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  136. European Commission. 2020. “How to Understand Trust in Expertise at Times of COVID-19.” In Policy, Expertise, and Trust in Action (PEriTiA project). https://peritia-trust.eu /covid-19 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  137. European Commission. 2014. Public Perception of Science, Research and Innovation. Special Eurobarometer 419, October 2014. http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/archives/ebs/ebs_419_en.pdf (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  138. Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi. 1997. “Democracy or Consensus? Response to Wiredu.” In Postcolonial African Philosophy: A Critical Reader, edited by Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, 313-23. Oxford: Blackwell. Republished in Polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy, 2000(2). http://them.polylog.org/2/fee-en.htm (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  139. Fabbrini, Sergio. 2011. “When Media and Politics Overlap: Inferences from the Italian Case.” Government and Opposition 46: 345-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-7053.2011.01342.x
  140. Fabre, Cecile. 2000a. “A philosophical argument for a Bill of Rights.” British Journal of Political Science 30: 77-98. DOI: 10.1017/s0007123400000041
  141. Fabre, Cecile. 2000b. Social Rights Under the Constitution: Government and the Decent Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198296751
  142. Fabre, Cécile. 2003. “To Deliberate or Discourse. Is That the Question?”. European Journal of Political Theory 2: 107-15. (Review of Dryzek 2000) DOI: 10.1177/1474885103002001284
  143. Farmer, Rick. 2010. “How to influence government policy with your research: Tips from practicing political scientists in government.” PS - Political Science and Politics 43: 717-19. DOI: 10.1017/s1049096510001368
  144. Federici, Michael. 1991. The Challenge of Populism: The Rise of Right-Wing Democratism in Postwar America. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275939069
  145. Fenichel Pitkin, Hanna. (1967) 2023. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press. DOI: 10.1525/9780520340503
  146. Fernández-Martínez, José Luis and Joan Font Fábregas. 2018. “The devil is in the detail: What do citizens mean when they support stealth or participatory democracy?” Politics 38: 458-79. DOI: 10.1177/0263395717741799
  147. Ferrajoli, Luigi. 2011. “The Normative Paradigm of Constitutional Democracy.” Res Publica, 17: 355-67. DOI: 10.1007/s11158-011-9169-8
  148. Feyerabend, Paul. (1978) 1982. Science in a Free Society. London: Verso. ISBN 978-0860917533
  149. Fischer, Frank. 1989. Technocracy and the Politics of Expertise. London: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0803933798
  150. Fischer, Frank. 1998. “Beyond empiricism: Policy inquiry in postpositivist perspective.” Policy Studies Journal 26: 129-46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.1998.tb01929.x
  151. Fischer, Frank, and Herbert Gottweis. 2012. The Argumentative Turn Revisited: Public Policy as Communicative Practice. Durham: Duke University Press. DOI: 10.1215/9780822395362
  152. Fishkin, James S. 2018. “Random Assemblies for Lawmaking? Prospects and Limits.” Politics and Society 46: 359-79. DOI: 10.1177/0032329218789889
  153. Flanagan, Tom. 2009. “Academics in Politics.” Academic Matters: OCUFA’s Journal of Higher Education, 18 May 2009. https://academicmatters.ca/academics-in-politics (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  154. Fog, Kåre. 2012. The Lomborg-Errors Website. www.lomborg-errors.dk (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  155. Ford, Henry Jones. 1909. “The Direct Primary.” The North American Review 190: 1-14. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25106397 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  156. Fox, Robin. 1997. “State of the Art/Science in Anthropology.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 775: 327-45. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb23152.x
  157. Freedman, David H. 2010. Wrong: Why Experts* Keep Failing Us – And How to Know When Not to Trust Them. New York: Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 978-0316023788
  158. Freedman, James O. 1978. Crisis and Legitimacy: The Administrative Process and American Government. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521220637
  159. Freedom House. 2018. Freedom in the World 2018: Democracy in Crisis. Washington D.C. and New York: Freedom House. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2018 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  160. Freedom House. 2021. Freedom in the World 2021: Democracy under Siege. Washington, D.C. and New York: Freedom House. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2021/democracy-under-siege (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  161. French, Richard D. 2012. “The professors on public life.” The Political Quarterly 83: 532–40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-923x.2012.02320.x
  162. French, Richard D. 2018. “Is it time to give up on evidence-based policy? Four answers.” Policy and Politics 47: 151-68. DOI: 10.1332/030557318x15333033508220
  163. Friedlaender, Eron, and Flaura Winston. 2004. “Evidence based advocacy.” Injury Prevention 10: 324-6. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2004.006536
  164. Friedman, Milton. 1970. “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase Its Profits.” The New York Times Magazine, 13 September 1970. https://www.nytimes.com/1970/09/13/archives/a-friedman-doctrine-the-social-responsibility-of-business-is-to.html (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  165. Friedman, Thomas L. 2014. “Obama on Obama on Climate.” The New York Times, 7 June 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/08/opinion/sunday/friedman-obama-on-obama-on-climate.html (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  166. Funk, Cary (Pew Research Center). 2017. “Mixed Messages about Public Trust in Science.” Issues in Science and Technology 34(1). https://issues.org/real-numbers-mixed-messages-about-public-trust-in-science (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  167. Funk, Cary et al. (Pew Research Center). 2019. Trust and Mistrust in Americans’ Views of Scientific Experts. https://www.pewresearch.org/science/2019/08/02/trust-and-mistrust-in-americans-views-of-scientific-experts (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  168. Funk, Cary et al. (Pew Research Center). 2020. Science and Scientists Held in High Esteem Across Global Publics. https://www.pewresearch.org/science/2020/09/29/science-and-scientists-held-in-high-esteem-across-global-publics (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  169. Funtowicz, Silvio; Ravetz, Jerry. 1993. “Science for the post-normal age.” Futures 25: 739-55. Republished with a new foreword: Commonplace, 5 May 2020. DOI: 10.1016/0016-3287(93)90022-l
  170. Gallie, Walter Bryce. 1956. “Essentially Contested Concepts.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56: 167-98. DOI: 10.1093/aristotelian/56.1.167
  171. Galston, William A. 2010. “Realism in political theory.” European Journal of Political Theory 9: 385-411. DOI: 10.1177/1474885110374001
  172. Gastil, John, and Erik Olin Wright. 2018. “Legislature by Lot: Envisioning Sortition within a Bicameral System.” Politics and Society 46: 303-30. Reprinted in Gastil and Wright (eds.) 2019. DOI: 10.1177/0032329218789886
  173. Gastil, John, and Erik Olin Wright (eds.). 2019. Legislature by Lot: An Alternative Design for Deliberative Governance. London: Verso. ISBN 978-1-78873-612-1
  174. Gilardi, Fabrizio, and Martino Maggetti. 2011. “The Independence of Regulatory Authorities.” In Handbook on the Politics of Regulation, edited by David Levi-Faur, 201-14. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. DOI: 10.4337/9780857936110.00026
  175. Gilens, Martin, and Benjamin I. Page. 2014. “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens.” Perspectives on Politics 12: 564-81. DOI: 10.1017/s1537592714001595
  176. Ginsburg, Tom, and Aziz Huq. 2018a. How to Save a Constitutional Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226564418.001.0001
  177. Ginsburg, Tom, and Aziz Huq. 2018b. “Defining and Tracking the Trajectory of Liberal Constitutional Democracy.” In Graber, Levinson and Tushnet (eds.) 2018, Chapter 8. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/law/9780190888985.003.0003
  178. Giroux, Henry A. 2007. The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1594514227
  179. Gluckman, Peter. 2014. “The art of science advice to government.” Nature 507: 163-5. DOI: 10.1038/507163a
  180. Goldberg, Matthew H. et al. 2020. “Oil and gas companies invest in legislators that vote against the environment.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117: 5111-2. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922175117
  181. Goldstein, Bernard D. 1989. “Risk assessment and the interface between science and law.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 14: 343-55. https://journals.library.columbia.edu/index.php/cjel/article/download/5774/2833 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  182. Goodin, Robert E., and Kai Spiekermann. 2018. An Epistemic Theory of Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198823452.001.0001
  183. Gore, Al. 1992. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992. ISBN 0-395-57821-3
  184. Gore, Al. 2006. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2006. ISBN 978-0747590422
  185. Gore, Al. 2009. Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2009. ISBN 978-1594867347
  186. Gouvin, Eric L. 1995. “A Square Peg in a Vicious Circle: Stephen Breyer’s Optimistic Prescription for the Regulatory Mess.” Harvard Journal on Legislation 32: 473-92. https://digitalcommons.law.wne.edu/facschol/134 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  187. Graber, Mark A., Sanford Levinson and Mark Tushnet. 2018. Constitutional Democracy in Crisis? Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/law/9780190888985.003.0001
  188. Greenberg, Daniel S. 2007. Science for Sale: The Perils, Rewards, and Delusions of Campus Capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226306261.001.0001
  189. Griffin, Christopher G. 2003. “Democracy as a Non-Instrumentally Just Procedure.” Journal of Political Philosophy 11: 111-21. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9760.00169
  190. Grilli, Jacopo, and Stefano Allesina. 2017. “Last name analysis of mobility, gender imbalance, and nepotism across academic systems.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114:7600-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703513114
  191. Grossman, Gene M., and Elhanan Helpman. 2001. Special Interest Politics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262072304
  192. Grundmann, Reiner. 2018. “The Rightful Place of Expertise.” Social Epistemology 32: 372-86. DOI: 10.1080/02691728.2018.1546347
  193. Guerrero, Alexander. 2021. “The epistemic case for non-electoral forms of democracy.” In The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology, edited by Michael Hannon and Jeroen de Ridder, 419-29. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429326769-49
  194. Gunitsky, Seva. 2015. “How Do You Measure ‘Democracy’?” The Washington Post, 23 June 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2015/06/23/how-do-you-measure-democracy (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  195. Gunsalus, C. K. et al. 2019. “Overdue: a US advisory board for research integrity.” Nature 566: 173-5. DOI: 10.1038/d41586-019-00519-w
  196. Haas, Peter M. 2004. “When does power listen to truth? A constructivist approach to the policy process.” Journal of European Public Policy 11: 569-92. DOI: 10.1080/1350176042000248034
  197. Habermas, Jürgen. (1964) 1971. “The Scientization of Politics and Public Opinion.” In Toward a Rational Society: Student Protest, Science, and Politics, 62-80. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0807041772 (paperback)
  198. Habermas, Jürgen. (1992) 19962. Between Facts and Norms. Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Revised and enlarged edition, includes 1994 postscript. ISBN 9780262581622
  199. Hallegatte, Stephane et al. 2016. Shock Waves: Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2016. DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0673-5
  200. Hamowy, Ronald. 1982. “The Hayekian Model of Government in an Open Society.” Journal of Libertarian Studies 6: 137-43. https://mises.org/library/hayekian-model-government-open-society (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  201. Hasen, Richard L. 2016. Plutocrats United: Campaign Money, the Supreme Court, and the Distortion of American Elections. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. DOI: 10.12987/9780300216745
  202. Hay, Peter. 1993. The Book of Legal Anecdotes. New York: Dorset House Publishing. ISBN 978-0880299763
  203. Head, Brian W. 2008. “Three Lenses of Evidence-Based Policy.” Australian Journal of Public Administration 67: 1-11. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8500.2007.00564.x
  204. Head, Brian W. 2013. “Evidence-based policymaking – Speaking truth to power?” Australian Journal of Public Administration 72: 397-403. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12037
  205. Healy, Andrew, and Neil Malhotra. 2009. “Myopic voters and natural disaster policy.” American Political Science Review 103: 387-406. DOI: 10.1017/s0003055409990104
  206. Heazle, Michael, and John Kane (eds.). 2015. Policy Legitimacy, Science and Political Authority: Knowledge and action in liberal democracies. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781315688060
  207. Her Majesty’s Treasury. 2013. Investing in Britain’s Future: Our plan to build, repair and renew our key infrastructure. ISBN 978-0-10-186692-7.
  208. Herweg, Nicole, Christian Huß, and Reimut Zohlnhöfer. 2015. “Straightening the Three Streams: Theorizing Extensions of the Multiple Streams Framework.” European Journal of Political Research 54: 435-49. DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12089
  209. Herweg, Nicole, Nikolaos Zahariadis, and Reimut Zohlnhöfer. 2017. “The Multiple Streams Framework: Foundations, Refinements, and Empirical Applications.” In Weible and Sabatier 2018, 17-53. DOI: 10.4324/9780429494284-2
  210. Heymann, Jody et al. 2013. “Constitutional Rights to Health, Public Health and Medical Care: The Status of Health Protections in 191 Countries.” Global Public Health 8: 639-53. DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2013.810765
  211. Hibbing, John R., and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse. 2002. Stealth Democracy: Americans’ Beliefs About How Government Should Work. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613722
  212. Hoffman, Andrew J. et al. 2015. Academic Engagement in Public and Political Discourse: Proceedings from the Michigan Meeting, May 2015. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Library. DOI: 10.3998/mm.13950883.0001.001
  213. Hoffman, Andrew J. 2021. The Engaged Scholar: Expanding the Impact of Academic Research in Today’s World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. DOI: 10.1515/9781503629257
  214. Holmes, Stephen. 2012. “Constitutions and Constitutionalism.” In The Oxford handbook of comparative constitutional law, edited by Michel Rosenfeld and András Sajó, 189-216. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199578610.013.0010
  215. Holst, Cathrine. 2014. “Why not epistocracy? Political legitimacy and ‘the fact of expertise’.” In Holst (ed.) 2014, 1-12.
  216. Holst, Cathrine (ed.). 2014. Expertise and Democracy. Oslo: ARENA Centre for European Studies. ISBN 978-82-93137-45-0
  217. Holst, Cathrine, and Anders Molander. 2017. “Public deliberation and the fact of expertise: making experts accountable.” Social Epistemology 31: 235-50. DOI: 10.1080/02691728.2017.1317865
  218. Holt, Rush. 2019. “Democracy’s plight.” Science 363: 433. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw8157
  219. Hood, Christopher, Henry Rothstein, and Robert Baldwin. 2001. The government of risk: Understanding Risk Regulation Regimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/0199243638.001.0001
  220. Hoppe, Robert. 2005. “Rethinking the Science-Policy Nexus: From Knowledge Utilization and Science Technology Studies to Types of Boundary Arrangements.” Poiesis & Praxis, 3: 199-215. DOI: 10.1007/s10202-005-0074-0
  221. Huq, Aziz Z. 2018. “Democratic Erosion and the Courts: Comparative Perspectives.” NYU Law Review Online, 93:21-31. https://www.nyulawreview.org/online-features/democratic-erosion-and-the-courts-comparative-perspectives (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  222. INGSA - The International Network for Government Science Advice. 2018. Strategic Plan 2018-2021. www.ingsa.org/about/strategic-plan/(retrieved 2023-07-05).
  223. Institute for Government. 2016. Trust in Government Is Growing – but It Needs to Deliver. London: Institute for Government. https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/publication/report/trust-government-growing-it-needs-deliver (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  224. IPBES. 2018. Summary for policymakers of the assessment report on land degradation and restoration of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Bonn (Germany): IPBES secretariat. www.ipbes.net/assessment-reports/ldr (retrieved 2023-07-05). DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3237411
  225. Ipsos MORI. 2018. Veracity Index 2018. www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2018-11/veracity_index_2018_v1_161118_public.pdf (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  226. Jacobs, Lawrence R., and Robert Y. Shapiro. 2010. “Simulating Representation: Elite Mobilization and Political Power in Health Care Reform.” The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics 8:4. DOI: 10.2202/1540-8884.1360
  227. Jacobs, Lawrence R., and Robert Y. Shapiro. 2011. “Response to Quirk’s ‘Polarized Populism: Masses, Elites, and Partisan Conflict’.” The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics 9:11. DOI: 10.2202/1540-8884.1441
  228. Jasanoff, Sheila. 1990. The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674300613
  229. Jasanoff, Sheila. 2003a. “(No?) Accounting for expertise.” Science and Public Policy 30:157-62. DOI: 10.3152/147154303781780542
  230. Jasanoff, Sheila. 2003b. “Breaking the Waves in Science Studies; Comment on H. M. Collins and Robert Evans, ‘The Third Wave of Science Studies’.”. Social Studies of Science 33: 389-400. DOI: 10.1177/03063127030333004
  231. Jeffrey, Anne. 2017. “Limited Epistocracy and Political Inclusion.” Episteme 15: 412-32. DOI: 10.1017/epi.2017.8
  232. Jones, Garett. 2020. 10% Less Democracy: Why You Should Trust Elites a Little More and the Masses a Little Less. Stanford: Stanford University Press. DOI: 10.1515/9781503611214
  233. Jordana, Jacint, Xavier Fernández-i-Marín. and Andrea C. Bianculli. 2018. “Agency proliferation and the globalization of the regulatory state: Introducing a data set on the institutional features of regulatory agencies.” Regulation & Governance 12: 524-40. DOI: 10.1111/rego.12189
  234. Judson, Horace Freeland. 2004. The Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science. Orlando: Harcourt. ISBN 978-0151008773
  235. Judson, Olivia. 1999. “Slide-rule justice.” National Journal, 9 October 1999, 2882-84. [link not found: see Marchant 2012]
  236. Jung, Courtney, Ran Hirschl and Evan Rosevear. 2014. “Economic and Social Rights in National Constitutions.” American Journal of Comparative Law 62: 1043-94. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2349680
  237. Jurs, Andrew. 2010. “Science Court: Past Proposals, Current Considerations, and a Suggested Structure.” Virginia Journal of Law & Technology 15: 1-42. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1561724 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  238. Kahan, Dan M., Ellen Peters, Erica Cantrell Dawson, and Paul Slovic. 2017. “Motivated numeracy and enlightened self-government.” Behavioural Public Policy 1: 54-86. DOI: 10.1017/bpp.2016.2
  239. Kant, Immanuel (1795) 2006. Toward Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11070-8
  240. Katz, Richard S., and Peter Mair. 2009. “The Cartel Party Thesis: A Restatement.” Perspectives on Politics 7: 753-66. DOI: 10.1017/s1537592709991782
  241. Kahneman, Daniel. 2003. “Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioral Economics.” The American Economic Review 93: 1449-75. DOI: 10.1257/000282803322655392
  242. Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374275631
  243. Kaiser, André. 1997. “Types of Democracy: From Classical to New Institutionalism.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 9: 419-44. DOI: 10.1177/0951692897009004001
  244. Kantrowitz, Arthur. 1967. “Proposal for an Institution for Scientific Judgment.” Science 156: 763-4. DOI: 10.1126/science.156.3776.763
  245. Kantrowitz, Arthur. 1975. “Controlling Technology Democratically.” American Scientist 63: 505-9. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27845676 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  246. Kennedy, Brian et al. (Pew Research Center). 2019. Americans Value U.S. Role as Scientific Leader, but 38% Say Country Is Losing Ground Globally. www.pewresearch.org/science/2022/10/25/americans-value-u-s-role-as-scientific-leader-but-38-say-country-is-losing-ground-globally (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  247. Kernell, Samuel et al. 20178. The Logic of American Politics. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press. ISBN 978-1506358666
  248. Kinderlerer, Julian et al. 2017. “Ethics & Principles for Science & Society Policy-Making: The Brussels Declaration.” EuroScientist, 17 February 2017. www.euroscientist.com/theme/brussels-declaration (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  249. King, Anthony. 2016. “Science, politics and policymaking.” EMBO Reports 17: 1510-12. DOI: 10.15252/embr.201643381
  250. Kingdon, John W. 1993. “Politicians, Self-Interest, and Ideas.” In Reconsidering the Democratic Public, edited by George E. Marcus and Russell L. Hanson, 73-90. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0271009179
  251. Kitcher, Philip. 2011. Science in a Democratic Society. New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1616144074 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  252. Klare, Karl. 1998. “Legal Culture and Transformative Constitutionalism.” South African Journal on Human Rights 14: 146-88. DOI: 10.1080/02587203.1998.11834974
  253. Knight, Frank H. (1935) 2017. “Economic Theory and Nationalism.” In The Ethics of Competition and Other Essays. With a new Introduction by Richard Boyd. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138535510
  254. Knorr-Cetina, Karin D. 1977. “Policymakers’ use of social science knowledge—Symbolic or instrumental.” In Using social research in public policy making, edited by Carol H. Weiss, 165-82. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 1977. ISBN 978-0669004984
  255. Koop, Christel, and Philip Kessler. 2020. “Keeping control of regulation? Domestic constraints on the creation of independent authorities in emerging and developing economies.” Governance 34: 545-64. DOI: 10.1111/gove.12523
  256. Kopecký, Petr et al. 2016. “Party patronage in contemporary democracies: Results from an expert survey in 22 countries from five regions.” European Journal of Political Research 55: 416-31. DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12135
  257. Krugman, Paul. 2011. “We Are the 99.9%.” The New York Times, 24 November. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/25/opinion/we-are-the-99-9.html (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  258. Kuhner, Timothy K. 2014. Capitalism v. Democracy: Money in Politics and the Free Market Constitution. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804780667
  259. Lahsen, Myanna. 2005. “Technocracy, democracy, and U.S. climate politics: The need for demarcations.” Science, Technology & Human Values 30: 137-69. DOI: 10.1177/0162243904270710
  260. Landemore, Hélène. 2012. “Why the Many Are Smarter than the Few and Why It Matters.” Journal of Public Deliberation 8, Article 7: 1-14. DOI: 10.16997/jdd.129
  261. Lauer, Helen. 2012. “Wiredu and Eze on Good Governance.” Philosophia Africana 14: 41-59. DOI: 10.5840/philafricana20121418
  262. Lavezzolo, Sebastián, and Luis Ramiro. 2018. “Stealth democracy and the support for new and challenger parties.” European Political Science Review 10: 267-89. DOI: 10.1017/s1755773917000108
  263. Le Bon, Gustave (19059) 2001. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. Kitchener (Ontario): Batoche Books. https://archive.org/details/gustavlebonthecrowdastudyofthepopularmindbatochebookskitchener2001 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  264. Lee, Caroline W. 2015. Do-it-yourself Democracy: The Rise of the Public Engagement Industry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199987269
  265. Lentsch, Justus, and Peter Weingart (eds.). 2011. The Politics of Scientific Advice: Institutional Design for Quality Assurance. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511777141
  266. Lessig, Lawrence. 20152. Republic, Lost: Version 2.0. New York: Twelve. ISBN 978-1455537013
  267. Lewin, Leif. 1991. Self-Interest and Public Interest in Western Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/0198277253.001.0001
  268. Lewin, Leif et al. 2011. “Symposium on Leif Lewin’s Self-Interest and Public Interest in Western Politics after 20 Years.” Critical Review 23. www.tandfonline.com/toc/rcri20/23/3 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  269. Lever, Annabelle. 2009. “Democracy and Judicial Review: Are They Really Incompatible?” Perspectives on Politics 7: 805-22. DOI: 10.1017/s1537592709991812
  270. Levitan, Dave. 2017. Not a Scientist: How Politicians Mistake, Misrepresent, and Utterly Mangle Science. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0393353327
  271. Levy, David M., and Sandra Peart. 2017. Escape from Democracy: The Role of Experts and the Public in Economic Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/9781316499078
  272. Leyland, Peter. 20214. The constitution of the United Kingdom: A Contextual Analysis. Oxford (UK): Hart Publishing. ISBN 9781509945542
  273. Lijphart, Arend. 20122. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt32bg23 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  274. Lilla, Mark. 20162. The Reckless Mind: Intellectuals in Politics. New York: New York Review of Books. ISBN 978-1681371160
  275. Lindblom, Charles E. 1959. “The Science of ‘Muddling Through’”. Public Administration Review 19: 79-88. DOI: 10.2307/973677
  276. Lindblom, Charles E. 1979. “Still Muddling, Not Yet Through.” Public Administration Review 39: 517-26. DOI: 10.2307/976178
  277. Lindblom, Charles E. 2001. The Market System: What It Is, How It Works, and What to Make of It. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300087529
  278. Lippmann, Walter. (1922) 1929. Public Opinion. New York: The Macmillan Company. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Public_Opinion (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  279. List, Christian, and Robert E. Goodin. 2001. “Epistemic Democracy: Generalizing the Condorcet Jury Theorem.” Journal of Political Philosophy 9: 277-306. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9760.00128
  280. Liveriero, Federica, and Daniele Santoro. 2017. “Proceduralism and the epistemic dilemma of Supreme Courts.” Social Epistemology 31: 310-23. DOI: 10.1080/02691728.2017.1317872
  281. Lomborg, Bjørn. 2001. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139626378
  282. Lomborg, Bjørn. 20082. Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist’s Guide to Global Warming. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0307386526
  283. Lomborg, Bjørn (ed.). 2009. Smart Solutions to Climate Change: Comparing Costs and Benefits. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511779015
  284. Maasen, Sabine, and Peter Weingart (eds.). 2005. Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making. Dordrecht: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3754-6
  285. Macedo, Stephen. 2010. “Against Majoritarianism: Democratic Values and Institutional Design.” Boston University Law Review 90: 1029-42. https://www.bu.edu/bulawreview/archives/volume-90-number-2-april-2010 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  286. MacKenzie, Michael K. 2016. “Institutional design and sources of short-termism.” In Institutions for future generations, edited by Iñigo González-Ricoy and Axel Gosseries, 24-48. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198746959.003.0002
  287. Majone, Giandomenico. 1996. Temporal Consistency and Policy Credibility: Why Democracies Need Non-Majoritarian Institutions. Florence: European University Institute, Working Paper RSC 1996/57. https://hdl.handle.net/1814/1472 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  288. Majone, Giandomenico. 2005. Delegation of Powers and the Fiduciary Principle. Paper presented at the CONNEX Workshop, Paris, 11 May 2005 http://www.mzes.uni-mannheim.de/projekte/typo3/site/fileadmin/research%20groups/6/reader/Majone_Connex_Paris.pdf (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  289. Mair, Peter. 2009. Representative versus Responsible Government. Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, Working Paper 2009/08. https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/12533 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  290. Malleson, Tom. 2018. “Should Democracy Work through Elections or Sortition?” Politics and Society 46: 401-17. Reprinted in Gastil and Wright (eds.) 2019. DOI: 10.1177/0032329218789891
  291. Manweller, Mathew. 2018. “Introduction to Academics in the Arena: Political Scientists Who Have Served in Elected Office.” PS: Political Science & Politics 51: 141-6. DOI: 10.1017/s1049096517001822
  292. Manweller, Mathew et al. 2018. “Symposium: Academics in the Arena: Political Scientists Who Have Served in Elected Office.” PS: Political Science & Politics 51:141-72. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ps-political-science-and-politics/issue/C8DA3D04913FFD74156175564005E463 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  293. Manza, Jeff, and Christopher Uggen. 2006. Locked Out: Felon Disenfranchisement and American Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149326.001.0001
  294. Marchant, Gary E. 2012. “A Return to Expertise?: A Proposal for an Institute of Scientific Assessments.” In Institutions and Incentives in Regulatory Science, edited by Jason Scott Johnston, 199-213. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0739169469
  295. Martí, José Luis. 2006. “The Epistemic Conception of Deliberative Democracy Defended. Reasons, Rightness and Equal Political Liberty.” In Deliberative Democracy and Its Discontents, edited by José Luis Martí and Samantha Besson, 59-88. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781315258249-13
  296. Martin, Brian. 2009. “Academic Patronage.” International Journal for Educational Integrity 5: 3-19. DOI: 10.21913/ijei.v5i1.478
  297. Mastropaolo, Alfio. 2012. Is Democracy a Lost Cause?: Paradoxes of an Imperfect Invention. Colchester (UK): ECPR Press. ISBN 978-1907301384
  298. Mattes, Kyle, and David Redlawsk. 2015. The Positive Case for Negative Campaigning. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226202334.001.0001
  299. Mattozzi, Andrea, and Antonio Merlo. 2015. “Mediocracy.” Journal of Public Economics 130: 32-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2015.07.001
  300. Mayhew, David R. 20042. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven: Yale University Press. (New Foreword by R. Douglas Arnold, New Preface by the Author; 1st ed. 1974) ISBN 978-0300105872
  301. McCormick, John. 2011. Machiavellian Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511975325
  302. McDonnell, Duncan, and Marco Valbruzzi. 2014. “Defining and classifying technocrat-led and technocratic governments.” European Journal of Political Research, 53: 654-71. DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12054
  303. Mead, Lawrence. 2015. “Only connect: Why government often ignores research.” Policy Sciences 48: 257-72. DOI: 10.1007/s11077-015-9216-y
  304. Medvic, Stephen K. 2012. In Defense of Politicians: The Expectations Trap and Its Threat to Democracy. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203849729
  305. Meijer, Ruben (ed.). 2013. Independent Regulatory Commissions: Rulemaking and Cost-Benefit Analysis Issues. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-62808-103-9
  306. Merton, Robert K. (1942). “Science and Technology in a Democratic Order.” Journal of Legal and Political Sociology 1: 115-26. Reprinted (1973) with minor changes as “The Normative Structure of Science.” In The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, 267-280. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/S/bo28451565.html (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  307. Merton, Robert K., and Daniel Lerner. 1951. “Social Scientists and Research Policy.” In The Policy Sciences: Recent Developments in Scope and Method, edited by Daniel Lerner and Harold D. Lasswell, 282-307. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. https://archive.org/details/policysciencesre0000unse (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  308. Meynaud, Jean (1964) 1968. Technocracy. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0571087396
  309. Michelman, Frank I. 2011. Constitutional essentials. Harvard Public Law Working Paper, 12-06. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.1976580
  310. Michelman, Frank I. 2015. “Legitimacy, the Social Turn and Constitutional Review: What Political Liberalism Suggests.” Critical Quarterly for Legislation and Law 98: 183-205. DOI: 10.5771/2193-7869-2015-3-183
  311. Mill, John Stuart. 1859. Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform. London: John W. Parker and Son. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Thoughts_on_Parliamentary_Reform (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  312. Mill, John Stuart. 1861. “Considerations on Representative Government.” In The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XIX - Essays on Politics and Society Part 2. https://oll.libertyfund.org/title/robson-the-collected-works-of-john-stuart-mill-volume-xix-essays-on-politics-and-society-part-2 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  313. Miller, Henry I., and Gregory Conko. 2003. “Bootleggers and Biotechs.” Regulation Summer 2003: 12-14. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=505585 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  314. Miller, Jon D. 1983. “Scientific Literacy: A Conceptual and Empirical Review.” Dedalus 112: 29-48. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20024852(retrieved 2023-07-05).
  315. Moffitt, Benjamin. 2016. The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style, and Representation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. DOI: 10.11126/stanford/9780804796132.001.0001
  316. Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat (1748) 1758. The Spirit of Laws. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_Laws_(1758) (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  317. Moon, M. Jae, and Chang-ho Hwang. 2018. “The Scholar-Official Policy Nexus and Confucian Policy Styles in South Korea.” In Policy Styles and Policy-Making: Exploring the Linkages, edited by Michael Howlett and Jale Tosun, 70-88. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781315111247-4
  318. Moore, Alfred. 2014. “Democratic theory and expertise: Between competence and consent.” In Holst (ed.) 2014, 49-83.
  319. Moyo, Dambisa. 2018. Edge of Chaos: Why Democracy Is Failing to Deliver Economic Growth—and How to Fix It. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465097463
  320. Mueller, Dennis C., Robert D. Tollison, and Thomas D. Willett. 1972. “Representative Democracy via Random Selection.” Public Choice 12: 57-68. Reprinted as Chapter 3 in Stone 2011. DOI: 10.1007/bf01718470
  321. Mulgan, Geoff, 2005. “Government, knowledge and the business of policymaking: The potential and limits of evidence-based policy.” Evidence & Policy 1: 215-26. DOI: 10.1332/1744264053730789
  322. Müller, Jan-Werner. 2015. “What, if anything, is wrong with Hayek’s model constitution?” In Law, Liberty and State: Oakeshott, Hayek and Schmitt on the Rule of Law, edited by David Dyzenhaus and Thomas Poole, 261-80. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9781316144930.011
  323. Müller, Wolfgang C., and Kaare Strøm (eds.). 1999. Policy, office or votes? How political parties in Western Europe make hard decisions. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511625695
  324. Murphy, Walter F. 2006. Constitutional Democracy: Creating and Maintaining a Just Political Order. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801884702
  325. Mutch, Robert E. 2014. Buying the Vote: A History of Campaign Finance Reform. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190627324
  326. Mutz, Diana C. 2006. Hearing the Other Side: Deliberative versus Participatory Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511617201
  327. Myers, Norman, and Jennifer Kent. 2001. Perverse Subsidies: How Tax Dollars Can Undercut the Environment and the Economy. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 978-1559638357
  328. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Fostering Integrity in Research: A Consensus Study Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. DOI: 10.17226/21896
  329. National Research Council. 2012. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy. Committee on the Use of Social Science Knowledge in Public Policy; edited by Kenneth Prewitt, Thomas A. Schwandt, and Miron L. Straf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. DOI: 10.17226/13460
  330. Nature. 2015. “Fishy limits” (Editorial). Nature 528: 435. DOI: 10.1038/528435a
  331. Nature Microbiology. 2018. “Peer review is not broken.” (Editorial) Nature Microbiology 3: 1. DOI: 10.1038/s41564-017-0093-3
  332. Neto, Octavio Amorim, and Kaare Strøm. 2006. “Breaking the Parliamentary Chain of Delegation: Presidents and Non-Partisan Cabinet Members in European Democracies.” British Journal of Political Science 36: 619-43. DOI: 10.1017/s0007123406000330
  333. Newman, Joshua, Adrian Cherney, and Brian W. Head. 2015. “Do Policy Makers Use Academic Research? Reexamining the ‘Two Communities’ Theory of Research Utilization.” Public Administration Review 76: 24-32. DOI: 10.1111/puar.12464
  334. Nichols, Thomas M. 2017. The Death of Expertise: The Campaign Against Established Knowledge and Why it Matters. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190469412
  335. Nisbet, Matthew. 2017. “The March for Science.” Skeptical Inquirer 41: 18-9. https://skepticalinquirer.org/2017/07/the-march-for-science (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  336. Novella, Steve. 2022. “Trust in Science.” Neurologicablog, 27 October 2022. https://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/trust-in-science (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  337. Nutley, Sandra et al. 2010. “Editorial” to the journal issue, titled “Evidence and policy in six European countries: Diverse approaches and common challenges.” Evidence & Policy 6: 131-44. DOI: 10.1332/174426410X502275
  338. OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2013. Government at a Glance. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/22214399
  339. Oliver, Kathryn, and Paul Cairney. 2020. “How should academics engage in policymaking to achieve impact?” Political Studies Review 18: 228-44. DOI: 10.1177/1478929918807714
  340. Oliver, Kathryn, and Paul Cairney. 2019. “The dos and don’ts of influencing policy: a systematic review of advice to academics.” Palgrave Communications, 5: 21. DOI: 10.1057/s41599-019-0232-y
  341. Olson, Mancur. 19712. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Revised ed.; 1st ed. 1965.) DOI: 10.2307/j.ctvjsf3ts
  342. Page, Edward C. 2012. Policy without politicians: Bureaucratic influence in comparative perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.001.0001
  343. Page, Benjamin I., and Martin Gilens. 20202. Democracy in America? What Has Gone Wrong and What We Can Do about It. With a New Afterword. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  344. Palumbo, Antonino (ed.). 2017. Models of Deliberative Democracy. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781472429162
  345. Parkhurst, Justin. 2016. The Politics of Evidence: From evidence-based policy to the good governance of evidence. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781315675008
  346. Parry, Ian H. W., Simon Black, and Nate Vernon. 2021. Still Not Getting Energy Prices Right: A Global and Country Update of Fossil Fuel Subsidies. IMF Working papers 2021/236. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. DOI: 10.5089/9781513595405.001
  347. Pennock, Roland J. (1968) 2017. “Political Representation: An Overview.” In Representation, edited by Roland J. Pennock and John W. Chapman, 3-27. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1138531833
  348. Percival, Robert V. 2018. “The Climate Crisis and Constitutional Democracies.” In Graber, Levinson and Tushnet (eds.) 2018, Chapter 34. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/law/9780190888985.003.0034
  349. Persson, Torsten, Gerard Roland, and Guido Tabellini. 2007. “Electoral Rules and Government Spending in Parliamentary Democracies.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 2: 155-88. DOI: 10.1561/100.00006019
  350. Petras, Kathryn, and Ross Petras. 2007. Unusually Stupid Politicians: Washington’s Weak in Review. New York: Villard, 2007. ISBN 978-0812977516
  351. Piattoni, Simona (ed.). 2001. Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139175340
  352. Piattoni, Simona. 2007. Le virtù del clientelismo. Una critica non convenzionale. Roma-Bari: Laterza. ISBN 9788842083399
  353. Pielke, Roger A. jr. 2007. The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511818110
  354. Pildes, Richard. 2014. “Romanticizing Democracy, Political Fragmentation, and the Decline of American Government.” Yale Law Journal 124: 804-52. https://www.yalelawjournal.org/article/the-decline-of-american-government (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  355. Pincione, Guido, and Fernando R. Tesón. 2006. Rational Choice and Democratic Deliberation: A Theory of Discourse Failure. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521862691
  356. Plato. (c. 370 BCE) 1888. The Republic. English translation by Benjamin Jowett. Oxford: Clarendon Press. www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/55201 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  357. Popper, Karl R. (1954) 2002. “Public Opinion and Liberal Principles.” In Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, 467-76. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415285940
  358. Popper, Karl R. (19665) 2011. The Open Society and Its Enemies. With a preface by Václav Havel (2002). London: Routledge Classics. ISBN 978-0-415-61021-6 (1st ed. 1945)
  359. Price, Don K. 1965. The Scientific Estate. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674794856
  360. Przeworski, Adam. 1999. “Minimalist Conception of Democracy: A Defense.” In Democracy’s Value, edited by Ian Shapiro and Casiano Hacker-Cordón, 23-55. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521643570
  361. Przeworski, Adam. 2010. Democracy and the Limits of Self-Government. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511778490
  362. Publius [Alexander Hamilton or James Madison]. 1788. The Federalist Papers: No. 53. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed53.asp (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  363. Putnam, Robert. 1977. “Elite Transformation in Advanced Industrial Societies: An Empirical Assessment of the Theory of Technocracy.” Comparative Political Studies 10: 383-412. DOI: 10.1177/001041407701000305
  364. Quirk, Paul J. 2010. “Politicians Do Pander: Mass Opinion, Polarization, and Law Making.” The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics 7(4). DOI: 10.2202/1540-8884.1343
  365. Quirk, Paul J. 2011. “Polarized Populism: Masses, Elites, and Partisan Conflict.” The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics 9(1). DOI: 10.2202/1540-8884.1428
  366. Rauch, Jonathan. 2015. Political Realism: How Hacks, Machines, Big Money, and Back-Room Deals Can Strengthen American Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. https://www.brookings.edu/book/political-realism (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  367. Rawls, John. (19912) 1999. A theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674000780 (1st ed. 1971)
  368. Rawls, John. 1997. “The Idea of Public Reason.” In Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics, edited by James F. Bohman and William Rehg, 93-144. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/2324.003.0007
  369. Rawls, John. 20052. Political liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231130882 (1st ed. 1993)
  370. Renn, Ortwin. 1995. “Style of using scientific expertise: a comparative framework.” Science and Public Policy 22: 147-56. DOI: 10.1093/spp/22.3.147
  371. Richardson, Henry S. 2012. “Relying on Experts as We Reason Together.” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22: 91-110. DOI: 10.1353/ken.2012.0007
  372. Richey, Mason. 2012. “Motivated reasoning in political information processing: The death knell of deliberative democracy?” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42: 511-42. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2056190
  373. Rittel, Horst W. J., and Melvin M. Webber. 1973. “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning.” Policy Sciences 4: 155-69. DOI: 10.1007/bf01405730
  374. Romaniello, Maria. 2016. “Bicameralism: a concept in search of a theory.” Amministrazione in cammino, 28 September 2016. https://www.amministrazioneincammino.luiss.it/2016/09/28/bicameralism-a-concept-in-search-of-a-theory (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  375. Rosanvallon, Pierre. (2006) 2008. Counter-Democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511755835
  376. Rosanvallon, Pierre. (2015) 2018. Good Government: Democracy beyond Elections. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. DOI: 10.4159/9780674986312
  377. Rose, Kathleen M., Ezra M. Markowitz, and Dominique Brossard. 2020. “Scientists’ incentives and attitudes toward public communication.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117: 1274-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916740117
  378. Rosenblum, Nancy. 2008. On the Side of the Angels: An Appreciation of Parties and Partisanship. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Summary of the book by the Author at http://rorotoko.com/interview/20090731_rosenblum_nancy_on_side_angels_appreciation_parties_partisanship, 31 July 2009 (retrieved 2023-07-05). DOI: 10.1515/9781400828975
  379. Rosenfeld, Sophia. 2018. Democracy and Truth: A Short History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812250848
  380. Rowe, Sherrylynn, and George A. Rose. 2018. “Exercise caution in cod management.” Nature 556: 436. Title in the webpage: “Canadian cod comeback derailed.” DOI: 10.1038/d41586-018-04898-4
  381. Rubenfeld, Jed. (2001) 2008. Freedom and Time: A Theory of Constitutional Self-government. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. DOI: 10.12987/9780300129427
  382. Runciman, David. 20182. Political Hypocrisy: The Mask of Power, from Hobbes to Orwell and Beyond. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691180854 (2nd ed. with an Afterword; 1st ed. 2008)
  383. Russell, Peter H. 20043. Constitutional Odyssey: Can Canadians Become a Sovereign People? Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-3936-7
  384. Russill, Chris. 2010. “Stephen Schneider and the ‘Double Ethical Bind’ of Climate Change Communication.” Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 30: 60-9. DOI: 10.1177/0270467609355055
  385. Sabato, Larry J. 20082. A More Perfect Constitution: Why the Constitution Must Be Revised: Ideas to Inspire a New Generation. New York: Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 9780802716835
  386. Sarewitz, Daniel. 1996. Frontiers of Illusion: Science, Technology, and the Politics of Progress. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. EAN 9781566394154
  387. Sarewitz, Daniel. 2000. “Science and Environmental Policy: An Excess of Objectivity.” In Earth Matters: The Earth Sciences, Philosophy, and the Claims of Community, edited by Robert Frodeman and Victor R. Baker, 79-98. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. ISBN 978-0130119964
  388. Sartori, Giovanni. 1968. “Representation Systems.” In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 13: 465-74. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-865965-7
  389. Sartori, Giovanni. 1987. The Theory of Democracy Revisited. Vol. 2, The Classical Issues. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House. ISBN: 978-0934540462
  390. Sartori, Giovanni. 19972. Comparative constitutional Engineering. An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814780633
  391. Sartori, Giovanni. 20002. Homo videns. Televisione e post-pensiero. Roma-Bari: Laterza. ISBN 978-8842061564
  392. Scharpf, Fritz W. 2003. Problem-solving effectiveness and democratic accountability in the EU. MPIfG working paper 03/1. Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies. https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/41664 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  393. Schattschneider, Elmer Eric. (1942) 2017. Party Government. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0765805584
  394. Schattschneider, Elmer Eric. (1960) 1975. The Semisovereign People: A Realist’s View of Democracy in America. Boston: Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0030133664
  395. Schleiter, Petra, and Margit Tavits. 2018. “Voter Reactions to Incumbent Opportunism.” The Journal of Politics 80:1183-96. DOI: 10.1086/698758
  396. Schlozman, Kay Lehman, Sidney Verba, and Henry E. Brady. 2012. The Unheavenly Chorus: Unequal Political Voice and the Broken Promise of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691154848
  397. Schmidt, Vivien A. 2013. “Democracy and Legitimacy in the European Union Revisited: Input, Output and ‘Throughput’.” Political Studies 61: 2-22. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2012.00962.x
  398. Schneider, Stephen H. 1988. “The greenhouse effect and the U.S. summer of 1988: Cause and effect or a media event.” Climatic Change 13: 113-15. DOI: 10.1007/bf00140564
  399. Schneider, Stephen H. 1990. Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century? New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0679730514
  400. Schudson, Michael. 2006. “The Trouble with Experts – and Why Democracies Need Them.” Theory and Society 35: 491-506. Reprinted as Chapter 10 in Why Democracies Need an Unlovable Press, 108-125. Cambridge (UK): Polity. ISBN 978-0-745-64453-0 DOI: 10.1007/s11186-006-9012-y
  401. Schultz, Kenneth A. 1995. “The Politics of the Political Business Cycle.” British Journal of Political Science 25: 79-99. DOI: 10.1017/s0007123400007079
  402. Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1942-1949) 1994. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10762-8
  403. Selinger, Evan. 2003. “Feyerabend’s Democratic Critique of Expertise.” Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 15: 359-73. DOI: 10.1080/08913810308443588
  404. Senate of the United States. 1997. Senate Res. 98: A Resolution Expressing the Sense of the Senate Regarding the Conditions for the United States Becoming a Signatory to any International Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Approved 95-0 on July 25, 1997. https://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_votes/vote1051/vote_105_1_00205.htm (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  405. Shapiro, Ian, and Casiano Hacker-Cordón (eds.). 1999. Democracy’s Edges. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511586361
  406. Shearman, David, and Joseph Wayne Smith. 2007. The Climate Change Challenge and the Failure of Democracy. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0313345043
  407. Shenkman, Rick. 2016. Political Animals: How Our Stone-Age Brain Gets in the Way of Smart Politics. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465033003
  408. Shepsle, Kenneth A. et al. 2009 “The Senate Electoral Cycle and Bicameral Appropriations Politics.” American Journal of Political Science 53: 343-59. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2009.00374.x
  409. Sherry, Suzanna. 2007. “Democracy and the death of knowledge.” University of Cincinnati Law Review 75: 1053-69. http://hdl.handle.net/1803/6584 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  410. Shils, Edwards. 1987. “Science and Scientists in the Public Arena.” The American Scholar 56:185-202. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41211409 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  411. Shklar, Judith N. (1984) 1985. “Let Us Not Be Hypocritical.” Daedalus 108: 1-25. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20024618. Reprinted, with revisions, as Ch. 2 in Ordinary Vices. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 9780674641761
  412. Simon, Herbert A. 19974. Administrative behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83582-2
  413. Smith, Adam. (1776) 1937. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. New York: Random House. https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/smith-adam/works/wealth-of-nations/index.htm (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  414. Smith, Graham. 2021. Can Democracy Safeguard the Future? Cambridge (UK): Polity. ISBN 978-1509539246
  415. Spies, Dennis C., and André Kaiser. 2014. “Does the Mode of Candidate Selection Affect the Representativeness of Parties?” Party Politics 20: 576-90. DOI: 10.1177/1354068811436066
  416. Stehr, Nico. 2016. “Exceptional Circumstances: Does Climate Change Trump Democracy?” Issues in science and technology 32(2). https://issues.org/exceptional-circumstances-does-climate-change-trump-democracy (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  417. Stern, Philip M. 19922. Still the Best Congress Money Can Buy. Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-0895265272
  418. Sternberg, Claudia S. 2014. “Political legitimacy between democracy and effectiveness: trade-offs, interdependencies, and discursive constructions by the EU institutions.” European Political Science Review 7: 615-38. DOI: 10.1017/s1755773914000356
  419. Stiglitz, Josepf. E. 2011. “Of the 1%, by the 1%, for the 1%.” Vanity Fair, 31 March. https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2011/05/top-one-percent-201105 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  420. Stokes, Donald E. 1997. Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0815781783
  421. Stokes, Susan C. et al. 2013. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107324909
  422. Stone, Peter (ed.). 2011. Lotteries in Public Life: A Reader. Exeter (UK): Imprint Academic. ISBN 9 781845 402082
  423. Strassheim, Holger, and Pekka Kettunen. 2014. “When does evidence-based policy turn into policy-based evidence? Configurations, contexts and mechanisms.” Evidence & Policy 10: 259-77. DOI: 10.1332/174426514x13990433991320
  424. Strøm, Kaare. 1990. “A Behavioral Theory of Competitive Political Parties.” American Journal of Political Science 34: 565-98. DOI: 10.2307/2111461
  425. Sunstein, Cass R. 2001. Designing Democracy: What constitutions Do. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195145427. Italian translation: A cosa servono le Costituzioni. Dissenso politico e democrazia deliberativa. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2009. ISBN 978-8815106018
  426. Sunstein, Cass R. 2004. The Second Bill of Rights: FDR’s Unfinished Revolution--And Why We Need It More Than Ever. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465083329
  427. Tagliabue, Giovanni. 2016. “The necessary ‘GMO’ denialism and scientific consensus.” Journal of Science Communication 15: 1-11. DOI: 10.22323/2.15040401
  428. Tagliabue, Giovanni. 2017. “The EU Legislation on ‘GMOs’ between nonsense and protectionism: An ongoing Schumpeterian chain of public choices.” GM Crops and Food 8: 57-73. DOI: 10.1080/21645698.2016.1270488
  429. Tagliabue, Giovanni, and Henry I. Miller. 2018. “‘Fakebook Science’ and Democracy.” European Scientist, 28 August. www.europeanscientist.com/en/features/fakebook-science-and-democracy (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  430. Tait, Joyce. 2014. “Bringing it all together.” In The Government Chief Scientific Adviser’s annual report for 2014. Innovation: Managing Risk, Not Avoiding It. Evidence and Case Studies, edited by Mark Peplow, 129-36. London: The Government Office for Science. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/innovation-managing-risk-not-avoiding-it (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  431. Talisse, Robert. 2017. “New Trouble For Deliberative Democracy.” Les ateliers de l’éthique 12: 107-23. DOI: 10.7202/1042280ar
  432. Talmon, Jacob L. (1952) 1986. The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140552058
  433. Talpin, Julien. 2020. “Does Random Selection Make Democracies More Democratic? How Deliberative Democracy has Depoliticized a Radical Proposal.” In Sortition and Democracy: History, Tools, Theories, edited by Liliane Lopez-Rabatel and Yves Sintomer. Exeter (UK): Imprint Academic. ISBN 978-1788360159
  434. Taverne, Dick. 2005. The March of Unreason: Science, Democracy, and the New Fundamentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192804853
  435. Tetlock, Philip E. 20172. Expert Political Judgment: How Good Is It? How Can We Know? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691178288
  436. ‘t Hart, Paul, and Mallory Compton (eds.). 2019. Great Policy Successes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198843719.001.0001
  437. Thatcher, Mark, and Alec Stone Sweet. 2002. “Theory and Practice of Delegation to Non-Majoritarian Institutions.” West European Politics 25: 1-22. DOI: 10.1080/713601583
  438. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2020. Democracy Index 2019: A year of democratic setbacks and popular protest. London: The Economist. https://www.eiu.com/n/campaigns/democracy-index-2019 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  439. Timperley, Jocelyn. 2021. “Why fossil fuel subsidies are so hard to kill.” Nature 598: 403-5. DOI: 10.1038/d41586-021-02847-2
  440. Tinagli, Irene. 2019. La grande ignoranza. Dall’uomo qualunque al ministro qualunque, l’ascesa dell’incompetenza e il declino dell’Italia. Milano: Rizzoli. ISBN 978-8817104005
  441. Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1835. Democracy in America, Vol. 1. London: Saunders and Otley. https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/815 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  442. Tortola, Pier Domenico. 2020. “Technocracy and depoliticization.” In Bertsou and Caramani (eds.) 2020a, 61-74. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429342165-5
  443. Tremmel, Jörg. 2015. “Parliaments and future generations: The four-power-model.” In The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical perspectives, edited by Dieter Birnbacher and May Thorseth, 220-41. London: Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315721200-16/parliaments-future-generations-jörg-tremmel (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  444. Tribe, Laurence H. 1980. “The Puzzling Persistence of Process-Based Constitutional Theories.” The Yale Law Journal 89: 1063-80. DOI: 10.2307/796023
  445. Trost, Christine, and Alison L. Gash (eds.). 2008. Conflict of Interest and Public Life: Cross-National Perspectives. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511611490
  446. Trout, J.D. 2013. “Democracy and scientific expertise: illusions of political and epistemic inclusion.” Synthese 190: 1267-91. DOI: 10.1007/s11229-012-0226-4
  447. Turnbull, Nick. 2008. “Harold Lasswell’s ‘problem orientation’ for the policy sciences.” Critical Policy Studies 2: 72-91. DOI: 10.1080/19460171.2008.9518532
  448. Turner, Stephen. 2001. “What is the Problem with Experts?” Social Studies of Science 31: 123-49. DOI: 10.1177/030631201031001007
  449. Turner, Stephen. 2003. Liberal Democracy 3.0: Civil Society in an Age of Experts. London: SAGE Publications. DOI: 10.4135/9781446217498
  450. UNICEF - United Nations Children’s Fund. 2010. Advocacy Toolkit: A Guide to Influencing Decisions that Improve Children’s Lives. New York: UNICEF. https://www.right-to-education.org/resource/advocacy-toolkit-guide-influencing-decisions-improve-childrens-lives (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  451. Urbinati, Nadia. 2014. Democracy Disfigured: Opinion, Truth, and the People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674726383
  452. Urfalino, Philippe. 2006. “Apparent Consensus and Voting: Two Modes of Collective Decision Making.” Paper presented at the workshop on “The mechanisms of collective decision-making”, Fondazione Olivetti, Rome, 29 April 2006. https://www.academia.edu/4277481/Apparent_Consensus_and_Vote. Revised version (in French): La décision par consensus apparent. Nature et propriétés, in Revue européenne des sciences sociales, 45: 47-70. DOI: 10.4000/ress.86
  453. Valbruzzi, Marco. 2020. “Technocratic cabinets.” In Bertsou and Caramani (eds.) 2020a, 113-30. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429342165-9
  454. Vandamme, Pierre-Étienne et al. 2018. “Intercameral Relations in a Bicameral Elected and Sortition Legislature.” Politics and Society 46: 381-400. Reprinted as Chapter 6 in Gastil, Wright (eds.) 2019 DOI: 10.1177/0032329218789890
  455. van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. 2010. “An assessment of Lomborg’s The Skeptical Environmentalist and the ensuing debate.” Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 7: 23-52. DOI: 10.1080/19438150903533730
  456. van der Veer, Reinout. 2020. “Technocratic responsiveness.” In Bertsou and Caramani (eds.) 2020a, 75-90. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429342165-6
  457. VanderMolen, Kathryn. 2017. “Stealth Democracy Revisited: Reconsidering Preferences for Less Visible Government.” Political Research Quarterly 70: 787-98. DOI: 10.1177/1065912917712478
  458. vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer (ed.). 2014. The Political Costs of the 2009 British MPs’ Expenses Scandal. London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1057/9781137034557
  459. Van Reybrouck, David. 2016. Against Elections: The Case for Democracy. London: Random House UK. ISBN 978-1847924223
  460. Varieties of Democracy Institute (V-Dem) 2023. Democracy Reports. University of Gothenburg, 2023. https://www.v-dem.net/publications/democracy-reports (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  461. Vergara, Camila. 2020. Systemic Corruption: Constitutional Ideas for an Anti-Oligarchic Republic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. DOI: 10.23943/princeton/9780691207537.001.0001
  462. Vibert, Frank. 2007. The rise of the unelected: Democracy and the new separation of powers. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9780511491160
  463. Vibert, Frank. 2018. Making a 21st Century Constitution: Playing Fair in Modern Democracies. Cheltenham Glos (UK): Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI: 10.4337/9781788118057
  464. von Hayek, Friedrich August. (1960) 2012. The Constitution of Liberty: The Definitive Edition, edited by Ronald Hamowy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. DOI: 10.4324/9781138400047
  465. von Hayek, Friedrich August. (1979) 1982. Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy (3 volumes). Volume III. The Political Order of a Free People. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415098687
  466. Von Schoultz, Åsa, and Mikko Mattila. 2009. “Direct Democracy and its Critics: Support for Direct Democracy and ‘Stealth’ Democracy in Finland.” 32: 1031-48. DOI: 10.1080/01402380903065256
  467. Waldron, Jeremy. 2006. “The Core of the Case against Judicial Review.” Yale Law Review, 115: 1346-60. DOI: 10.2307/20455656
  468. Waldron, Jeremy. 2010. “Constitutionalism: A Skeptical View.” Philip A. Hart Memorial Lecture. 4, http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/hartlecture/4 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  469. Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo, Lukas Meyer and Paul Burger. 2017. “Democracy for the Future: A Conceptual Framework to Assess Institutional Reform.” Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik 21: 197-220. DOI: 10.1515/jwiet-2017-0112
  470. Waluchow, Wil, and Dimitrios Kyritsis. 2022. “Constitutionalism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2022/entries/constitutionalism (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  471. Warren, Mark E. 2017. “What Kinds of Trust Does a Democracy Need? Trust From the Perspective of Democratic Theory.” In Handbook of Political Trust, edited by Sonya Zmerli and Tom van der Meer, 33-52. Cheltenham Glos (UK): Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI: 10.4337/9781782545118.00013
  472. Weaver, R. Kent. 1986. “The Politics of Blame Avoidance.” Journal of Public Policy 6: 371-98. DOI: 10.1017/S0143814X00004219
  473. Weber, Max. (1919) 1946. Politics as a Vocation. New York: Oxford University Press. https://archive.org/details/weber_max_1864_1920_politics_as_a_vocation (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  474. Weible, Christopher M., and Paul A. Sabatier (eds.). 20184. Theories of the Policy Process. New York: Routledge. (1st ed. 1999). DOI: 10.4324/9780429494284
  475. Weinberg, Alvin M. 1972. “Science and Trans-Science.” Minerva 10: 209-22. DOI: 10.1007/bf01682418
  476. Weingart, Peter. 1999. “Scientific expertise and political accountability: Paradoxes of science in politics.” Science and Public Policy 26: 151-61. DOI: 10.3152/147154399781782437
  477. Weingart, Peter, Marina Joubert, and Karien Connoway. 2021. “Public engagement with science - Origins, motives and impact in academic literature and science policy.” PLoS ONE 16: e0254201. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254201
  478. Weiss, Carol H. 1979. “The many meanings of research utilization.” Public Administration Review 39: 426-31. DOI: 10.2307/3109916
  479. Weiss, Carol H., and Judith E. Gruber. 1984. “Using knowledge for control in fragmented policy arenas.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 3: 225-47. DOI: 10.2307/3323934
  480. Weiss, Carol H. 1991. “Policy research: data, ideas, or arguments?” In Social sciences and modern states: national experiments and theoretical crossroads, edited by Peter Wagner et al., 307-32. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9780511983993.014
  481. Wellcome & Gallup. 2021. Wellcome Global Monitor 2020: Covid-19. London: Wellcome Trust. https://wellcome.org/reports/wellcome-global-monitor-covid-19/2020 (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  482. Westen, Drew. 2007. The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation. Philadelphia, PA: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1586485733
  483. Whiteman, David. 1985. “Reaffirming the importance of strategic use: A two-dimensional perspective on policy analysis in Congress.” Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion and Utilization 6: 203-24. DOI: 10.1177/107554708500600301
  484. WHO - World Health Organization. 2021. Evidence, policy, impact. WHO guide for evidence-informed decision-making. Geneva: WHO. ISBN 978-92-4-003988-9
  485. Williams, Juliet. 1997. “On the road again: Hayek and the rule of law.” Critical Review 11: 101-20. DOI: 10.1080/08913819708443446
  486. Wilson, James Q. 19662. The Amateur Democrat: Club Politics in Three Cities. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press (Reprinted with a new Preface; 1st ed. 1962). ISBN 978-0226901008
  487. Wilson, James Q. 1978. “Social Science and Public Policy: A Personal Note.” In Knowledge and Policy: The Uncertain Connection, edited by Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., 82-92. Washington: National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.17226/19941
  488. Winters, Jeffrey A. 2011. Oligarchy. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511793806
  489. Wiredu, Kwasi. 1995. “Democracy and Consensus in African Traditional Politics: A Plea for a Non-Party Polity.” The Centennial Review 39: 53-64. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23739547 Republished in Polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy, 2000(2). https://them.polylog.org/2/fwk-en.htm(retrieved 2023-07-05).
  490. WMO - World Meteorological Organization. 2022. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion 2022: Executive Summary. GAW Report No. 278. Geneva: WMO. ISBN: 978-9914-733-99-0
  491. World Values Survey [2010-2014] Confidence: Universities. www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSOnline.jsp (retrieved 2023-07-05).
  492. Young, Alison L. 20218. Turpin and Tomkins’ British Government and the Constitution: Text and Materials. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/9781108752268
  493. Zakaria, Fareed. 20072. The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad. New York: Norton. (Revised edition with a new Afterword; 1st ed. 2003) ISBN 978-0393331523
  494. Zapata-Carratala, Carlos et al. 2022. Against Parasite Publishers: Making Journals Free. Leipzig (Germany): BRCP Report. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7212921
  495. Ziman, John. 2000. Real Science: What It Is and What It Means. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511541391
PDF
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • Pages: 244
  • eISBN: 979-12-215-0161-2
  • Content License: CC BY-SA 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

EPUB
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • eISBN: 979-12-215-0162-9
  • Content License: CC BY-SA 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

XML
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • eISBN: 979-12-215-0163-6
  • Content License: CC BY-SA 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

PRINT
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • Pages: 244
  • ISBN: 979-12-215-0160-5
  • Content License: CC BY-SA 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

Bibliographic Information

Book Title

Rationalized and Extended Democracy

Book Subtitle

Inserting Public Scientists into the Legislative/Executive Framework, Reinforcing Citizens’ Participation

Authors

Giovanni Molteni Tagliabue

Peer Reviewed

Number of Pages

244

Publication Year

2023

Copyright Information

© 2023 Author(s)

Content License

CC BY-SA 4.0

Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Publisher Name

Firenze University Press

DOI

10.36253/979-12-215-0161-2

ISBN Print

979-12-215-0160-5

eISBN (pdf)

979-12-215-0161-2

eISBN (epub)

979-12-215-0162-9

Series Title

Studi e saggi

Series ISSN

2704-6478

Series E-ISSN

2704-5919

News and Events
855

Fulltext
downloads

1,516

Views

Search in This Book
Export Citation
Suggested Books

1,308

Open Access Books

in the Catalogue

1,962

Book Chapters

3,290,448

Fulltext
downloads

4,155

Authors

from 869 Research Institutions

of 64 Nations

63

scientific boards

from 339 Research Institutions

of 43 Nations

1,150

Referees

from 345 Research Institutions

of 37 Nations