Il lettore 'distratto'

Leggere e comprendere nell’epoca degli schermi digitali
  • Andrea Nardi,

In the current media landscape, digital devices seem to undermine traditional learning and reading practices. Overwhelmed by cognitive overload and a flood of information stimuli, constantly busy scrolling through touch screens, today's readers often show a "distracted", hasty and “impatient” approach; they skim-read through text without in-depth comprehension, thus risking to miss out on the full understanding of meanings. Following the increased diffusion of digital reading, both inside and outside of schools, researchers are called upon to evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, prerogatives and risks. Do the new reading modalities restructure our cognitive habits and our thinking? Is it better to read on paper or through digital texts? Does online reading require new competencies and skills? How can we teach students to read “critically” on the screen? These are just some of the questions which this volume will try to answer, benefiting from the contribution of various branches of knowledge ranging from pedagogy to media studies, from cognitive psychology to neuroscience; standing in between the two opposing views of the "myth of superficiality" and the "myth of depth", and avoiding both uncritical optimism regarding the present and nostalgic idealization of a past forever lost.

  • Keywords:
  • digital reading,
  • media literacy,
  • neuroscience,
  • learning,
  • evidence-based research,
+ Show more

Andrea Nardi

INDIRE, National Institute for Documentation, Innovation and Educational Research, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0001-7832-4580

Andrea Nardi works at the National Institute of Documentation, Innovation and Educational Research (INDIRE). PhD in Educational Sciences and Psychology (M-PED/03) works with the Laboratory of Educational Technology (LTE) at the University of Florence and is a member of the editorial board of the scientific journal Media Education, Studies, research and good practices (FUP). He mainly deals with media education, educational technologies, textuality and media literacies. Other research interests concern evidence-based education and effectiveness of teaching methods. About these topics he has published several papers on national and international scientific journals.
  1. Ackerman, Rakefet, e Morris Goldsmith. 2011. “Metacognitive regulation of text learning: On screen versus on paper.” Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17 (1): 18-32. DOI: 10.1037/a0022086
  2. Ackerman, Rakefet, e Tirza Lauterman. 2012. “Taking reading comprehension exams on screen or on paper? A metacognitive analysis of learning texts under time pressure.” Computers in Human Behavior, 28 (5): 1816-1828. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.04.023
  3. Adams, Marilyn J. 2010–2011 Winter. “Advancing our students' language and literacy: The challenge of complex texts.” American Educator, 34 (4): 3-11.
  4. Afflerbach, Peter, e Byeong-Young Cho. 2009a. “Determining and describing reading strategies: Internet and traditional forms of reading”. In Metacognition, strategy use, and instruction, a cura di Harriet S. Waters, e Wolfgang Schneider, 201-225. New York, NY: Guilford.
  5. Afflerbach, Peter, e Byeong‐Young Cho. 200b. “Identifying and describing constructively responsive comprehension strategies in new and traditional forms of reading”. In Handbook of reading comprehension research, a cura di Susan E. Israel, e Gerald G. Duffy, 69-90. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. DOI: 10.4324/9781315759609
  6. Afflerbach, Peter, Pearson David, e Scott Paris. 2017. “Skills and strategies. Their differences, their relationships, and why they matter”. In Improving reading comprehension through metacognitive reading instruction, a cura di Kouider Mokhtari, 33-48. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield.
  7. Agusti, Marta F., Velasco Margarida R., e María J. Serrano. 2011. “E-Learning: Psycho-pedagogical utility, usability and accessibility criteria from a learner centred perspective”. In Handbook of research on e-learning standards and interoperability: Frameworks and issues, a cura di Fotis Lazarinis, Steve Green, e Elaine Pearson, 419-434. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61692-789-9.ch021
  8. AIE-MIUR. 2019. Indagine conoscitiva 7^ Commissione Senato impatto del digitale sui processi di apprendimento. I dati dell’osservatorio aie sul digitale nella didattica, Audizione in videoconferenza.
  9. AIE-Nielsen. 2021. Lo stato del libro in Italia e in Europa nell’anno della pandemia.
  10. Alter, Adam. 2017. Irresistible: The rise of addictive technology and the business of keeping us hooked.
  11. Altmann, Erik M., Trafton J. Gregory, e David Z. Hambrick. 2014. “Momentary interruptions can derail the train of thought.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143 (1): 215-226. DOI: 10.1037/a0030986
  12. Alves, Rubem A. 2009. A pedagogia dos caracóis. São Paulo: Verus.
  13. Amadieu, Franck, Van Gog Tamara, Paas Fred, Tricot André, e Claudette Mariné. 2009. “Effects of prior knowledge and concept-map structure on disorientation, cognitive load, and learning.” Learning and Instruction, 19 (5): 376-386. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.02.005
  14. Ambra, Marco. 2015. “Resistere al colonialismo interstiziale. Intervista a Roberto Casati.” In Teste e colli. Cronache dell’istruzione ai tempi della Buona Scuola, a cura di Marco Ambra, 92-107. ebook de «Il lavoro culturale».
  15. Anderson, Chris. 2010. La coda lunga. Da un mercato di massa a una massa di mercati. Torino: Codice.
  16. Anderson, John R. 2009. Cognitive Psychology and its Implications (7th edn.). New York: Worth.
  17. Anderson, Michael L. 2010. “Neural reuse: A fundamental organizational principle of the brain.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33 (4): 245-266. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X10000853
  18. Anderson, Monica, e Jingjing Jiang. 2018. “Teens, social media & technology 2018.” Pew Research Center, 31 maggio, 2018.
  19. Anderson, Sam. 2009. “In defense of distraction. Twitter, Adderall, lifehacking, mindful jogging, power browsing, Obama’s BlackBerry, and the benefits of overstimulation.” New York Magazine, 17 maggio, 2009.
  20. Andresen, Anette, Anmarkrud Øistein, e Ivar Bråten. 2019. “Investigating multiple source use among students with and without dyslexia.” Reading and Writing, 32 (5): 1149-1174. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-018-9904-z
  21. Anichini, Alessandra. 2013. “Libri di scuola e lettura digitale. Proposte di ricerca.” Form@re - Open Journal Per La Formazione in Rete, 13 (4): 5-14. DOI: 10.13128/formare-14225
  22. Anmarkrud, Øistein, Brante Eva W., e Anette Andresen. 2018. “Potential processing challenges of Internet use among readers with dyslexia”. In Handbook of multiple source use, a cura di Jason L. G. Braasch, Ivar Bråten, e Matthew T. McCrudden, 117-132. New York: Routledge.
  23. Anmarkrud, Øistein, Bråten Ivar, e Helge I. Strømsø. 2014. “Multiple-documents literacy: Strategic processing, source awareness, and argumentation when reading multiple conflicting documents.” Learning and Individual Differences, 30: 64-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.01.007
  24. Anstey, Michele, e Geoff Bull. 2006. Teaching and Learning Multiliteracies. Newark, NJ: International Reading Association.
  25. Antinucci, Francesco. 1993. “Summa hypermedialis (per una teoria dell’hypermedia).” Sistemi Intelligenti, 5 (2): 227-257.
  26. Arendt, Hannah. 2009. Il pescatore di perle: Walter Benjamin (1892-1940). Milano: SE.
  27. Ariely, Dan, e Gregory S. Berns. 2010. “Neuromarketing: The hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11 (4): 284-292. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2795
  28. Azevedo, Roger. 2005. “Using Hypermedia as a Metacognitive Tool for Enhancing Student Learning? The Role of Self-Regulated Learning.” Educational Psychologist, 40 (4): 199-209. DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep4004_2
  29. Azevedo, Roger, Behnagh Reza, Duffy Melissa, Harley Jason, e Gregory Trevors. 2013. “Metacognition and self-regulated learning in student-centered leaning environments”. In Theoretical foundations of learning environments, a cura di Susan Land, e David Jonassen, 171-197. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  30. Azmuddin, Ruhil A., Nor Fariza, e Afendi Hamat. 2017. “Metacognitive online reading and navigational strategies by science and technology university students.” GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 17 (3): 18-36. DOI: 10.17576/gema-2017-1703-02
  31. Baccino, Thierry, e Valérie Drai-Zerbib. 2012. “L’usage des tablettes numériques: évaluation ergonomique.” Université Paris VIII – laboratoire Chart/Lutin.
  32. Bach, François, Houdé Olivier, Léna Pierre, e Serge Tisseron. 2013. L’Enfant et les écrans. Un avis de l’Académie des sciences. Paris: Éditions Le Pommier.
  33. Baddeley, Alan D., e Robert H. Logie. 1999. “Working Memory: The multiple-component model”. In Models of Working Memory, a cura di Akira Miyake, e Priti Shah, 28-61. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  34. Baek, Eun-Ok, e James Monaghan. 2013. “Journey to textbook affordability: an investigation of students’ use of etextbooks at multiple campuses.” International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 14 (3): 1-26. DOI: 10.19173/irrodl.v14i3.1237
  35. Baeza-Yates, Ricardo. 2018. “Bias on the web.” Communications of the ACM, 61 (6): 54-61. DOI: 10.1145/3209581
  36. Balbinot, Valeria, Toffol Giacomo, e Giorgio Tamburlini. 2016. “Tecnologie digitali e bambini: un’indagine sul loro utilizzo nei primi anni di vita.” Medico e Bambino, 10: 631-636.
  37. Ballatore, Andrea, e Simone Natale. 2015. “E-readers and the death of the book: Or, new media and the myth of the disappearing medium.” New Media & Society, 18 (10): 2379-2394. DOI: 10.1177/1461444815586984
  38. Baricco, Alessandro. 2008. I barbari: saggio sulla mutazione. Milano: Feltrinelli. Kindle edition.
  39. Baricco, Alessandro. 2010. “2026, la vittoria dei barbari.” La Repubblica, 26 agosto, 2010.
  40. Baricco, Alessandro. 2018. The Game. Torino: Einaudi.
  41. Baron, Naomi S. 2008. Always On: Language in an Online and Mobile World. New York: Oxford University Press.
  42. Baron, Naomi S. 2013a. “Reading in print versus onscreen: better, worse, or about the same”. In Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media, a cura di Deborah Tannen, e Anna M. Trester, 201-224. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
  43. Baron, Naomi S. 2013b. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.” PMLA – Modern Language Association, 1 (128): 193-200. DOI: 10.1632/pmla.2013.128.1.193
  44. Baron, Naomi S. 2015. Words onscreen. New York: Oxford University Press.
  45. Baron, Naomi S. 2016. “Why Digital Reading Is No Substitute for Print.” New Republic, 20 luglio, 2016.
  46. Baron, Naomi S. 2021. How we read now. New York: Oxford University Press. Kindle edition.
  47. Baron, Naomi S., Calixte, Rachelle M., e Mazneen Havewala. 2017. “The persistence of print among university students: An exploratory study.” Telematics and Informatics, 34 (5): 590-604. DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2016.11.008
  48. Barsky, Elena, e Judit Bar-Ilan. 2012. “The impact of task phrasing on the choice of search keywords and on the search process and success.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63 (10): 1987-2005. DOI: 10.1002/asi.22654
  49. Barthes, Roland. 1973. Le plaisir du texte. Paris: Seuil.
  50. Bartholomae, David, Petrosky Anthony, e Stacey Waite. 2017. Ways of reading: An anthology for writers (11th Edition). Boston, MA: Bedford St. Martin’s.
  51. Barzilai, Sarit, e Anat Zohar. 2012. “Epistemic thinking in action: Evaluating and integrating online sources.” Cognition and Instruction, 30 (1): 39-85. DOI: 10.1080/07370008.2011.636495
  52. Barzilai, Sarit, e Yoram Eshet-Alkalai. 2015. “The role of epistemic perspectives in comprehension of multiple author viewpoints.” Learning and Instruction, 36: 86-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.12.003
  53. Barzilai, Sarit, Zohar Anat, e Shiri Mor-Hagani. 2018. “Promoting integration of multiple texts: A review of instructional approaches and practices.” Educational Psychology Review, 30 (3): 973-999. DOI: 10.1080/07370008.2011.636495
  54. Barzillai, Mirit, e Jenny M. Thomson. 2018. “Children learning to read in a digital world.” First Monday, 23 (10): 1-10. DOI: 10.5210/fm.v23i10.9437
  55. Barzillai, Mirit, Thomson Jenny M., Schroeder Sascha, e Paul van den Broek, a cura di. 2018. Learning to read in a digital world. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/swll.17
  56. Bassy, Alain M., e Alain Séré. 2010. “Le manuel scolaire à l’heure du numérique, une ‘nouvelle donne’ de la politique des ressources pour l’enseignement.” IGAENR–IGEN.
  57. Battro, Antonio M., e Percival J. Denham. 2010. Verso un’intelligenza digitale. Milano: Ledizioni.
  58. Bauerlein, Mark. 2008. The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans And Jeopardizes our Future (or, Don’t Trust Anyone under 30). New York: Tarcher/Penguin.
  59. Baumann, James F., Seifert-Kessel Nancy, e Leah A. Jones. 1992. “Effect of think-aloud instruction on elementary students’ comprehension monitoring abilities.” Journal of Reading Behavior, 24: 143-172. DOI: 10.1080/10862969209547770
  60. Baumgartner, Susanne E., van der Schuur Winneke A., Lemmens, Jeroen S., e Fam te Poel. 2018. “The relationship between media multitasking and attention problems in adolescents: Results of two longitudinal studies.” Human Communication Research, 44: 3-30. DOI: 10.1093/hcre.12111
  61. Bawarshi, Anis S. 2003. Genre and the invention of the writer: Reconsidering the place of invention in composition. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
  62. Bean, John C. 1996. Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  63. Beghtol, Clare. 2001. “The concept of genre and its characteristic.” Bulletin of ASIST, 27 (2): 17-19. DOI: 10.1002/bult.192
  64. Bellur, Saraswathi, Nowak Kristine L., e Kyle S. Hull. 2015. “Make it our time: In class multitaskers have lower academic performance.” Computers in Human Behavior, 53: 63-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.027
  65. Belpoliti, Marco. 2012. “Perché non ricordo gli ebook?.” Doppiozero, 9 luglio, 2012.
  66. Belpoliti, Marco. 2019. “Leggere e scrivere.” Medium, 20 gennaio, 2019.
  67. Benedetto, Simone, Carbone Andrea, Pedrotti Marco, Le Fevre Kevin, Yahia Bey Linda A., e Thierry Baccino. 2015. “Rapid serial visual presentation: The case of Spritz.” Computers in Human Behavior, 45: 352-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.043
  68. Benjamin, Walter. 1936. “Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit.” Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, 5 (1): 40-66.
  69. Benjamin, Walter. 1976. “Di alcuni motivi in Baudelaire e Il narratore. Considerazioni sull'opera di Nikolaj Leskov.” In Angelus Novus, Torino, Einaudi.
  70. Benjamin, Walter. 2006. Strada a senso unico. Torino: Einaudi.
  71. Benjamin, Walter. 2012. Aura e choc. Saggi sulla teoria dei media. Torino: Einaudi.
  72. Benkler, Yochai. 2007. La ricchezza della rete. La produzione sociale trasforma il mercato e aumenta le libertà. Milano: Università Bocconi Editore.
  73. Bennet, Sue, Maton, Karl, e Lisa Kervin. 2008. “The ‘digital natives’: A critical review of the evidence”. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (5): 775-786. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00793.x
  74. Ben-Yehudah, Gal, e Yoram Eshet-Alkalai. 2014. “The influence of text annotation tools on print and digital reading comprehension”. In Learning in the Technological Era. Proceedings of the 9th Chais Conference for Innovation in Learning Technologies, 11-12 February 2014, a cura di Yoram Eshet-Alkalai, Avner Caspi, Nitza Geri, Yoram Kalman, Vered Silber-Varod, e Yoav Yair, 28-35. Raanana, Israel: Open University Press.
  75. Ben-Yehudah, Gal, e Yoram Eshet‐Alkalai. 2021. “Print versus digital reading comprehension tests: does the congruency of study and test medium matter?” British Journal of Educational Technology, 52 (1): 426-440. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.13014
  76. Ben-Yehudah, Gal, Hautala Jarkko, Padeliadu Susana, Antoniou Faye, Petrová Zuzana, Leppänen Paavo, e Mirit Barzillai. 2018. “Affordances and challenges of digital reading for individuals with different learning profiles”. In Learning to read in a digital world, a cura di Mirit Barzillai, Jenny Thomson, Sascha Schroeder, e Paul van der Broek, 121-140. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/swll.17.05ben
  77. Berge, Kjell L., Evensen Lars S., e Ragnar Thygesen. 2016. “The Wheel of Writing: A model of the writing domain for the teaching and assessing of writing as a key competency.” The Curriculum Journal, 27 (2): 172-189. DOI: 10.1080/09585176.2015.1129980
  78. Berns, Gregory S., Blaine Kristina, Prietula Michael, e Brandon E. Pye. 2013. “Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Novel on Connectivity in the Brain.” Brain Connectivity, 3 (6): 590-600. DOI: 10.1089/brain.2013.0166
  79. Bernstein, Jeremy. 1990. Uomini e macchine intelligenti. Milano: Adelphi.
  80. Berry, Anne S., Zanto Theodore P., Rutman Aaron M., Clapp Wesley C., e Adam Gazzaley. 2009. “Practice-related improvement in working memory is modulated by changes in processing external interference.” Journal of Neurophysiology, 102 (3): 1779-89. DOI: 10.1152/jn.00179.2009
  81. Beschorner, Beth, e Amy C. Hutchison. 2013. “iPads as a literacy teaching tool in early childhood.” International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 1 (1): 16-24.
  82. Bezemer, Jeff, e Gunther Kress. 2016. Multimodality, learning and communication: A social semiotic frame. London, UK: Routledge.
  83. Biancarosa, Gina, e Gina G. Griffiths. 2012. “Technology tools to support reading in the Digital Age.” The Future of Children, 22 (2): 139-160. DOI: 10.1353/foc.2012.0014
  84. Birkerts, Sven. 1994. The Gutenberg elegies: The fate of reading in an electronic age. New York: Fawcett Columbine.
  85. Block, Cathy C., e Susan E. Israel. 2004. “The ABCs of performing highly effective Think Alouds.” The Reading Teacher, 58 (2): 154-167. DOI: 10.1598/RT.58.2.4
  86. Blok, Henk, Oostdam Ron, Otter Martha, e Marianne Overmaat. 2002. “Computer-assisted instruction in support of beginning reading instruction: A review.” Review of Educational Research, 72 (1): 101-130. DOI: 10.3102/00346543072001101
  87. Bogost, Ian. 2021. “Why Are Ebooks So Terrible?.” The Atlantic, 14 settembre, 2021.
  88. Bohannon, John. 2011. “Searching for the Google Effect on People's Memory.” Science, 333 (6040): 277-277. DOI: 10.1126/science.333.6040.277
  89. Bologna, Emanuela, Lorè Barbara M. R., Macchia Stefania, e Sante Orsini. 2020. “Un nuovo approccio per i test cognitivi: l’esperienza sull’indagine ‘Aspetti della vita quotidiana’. Istat Working Papers No. 2.
  90. Bolter, Jay D. 1991. Writing space: The computer, hypertext, and the history of writing. Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  91. Bolter, Jay D., e Richard Grusin. 2002. Remediation. Competizione e integrazione tra media vecchi e nuovi. Milano: Guerini e Associati.
  92. Bonaiuti, Giovanni, Calvani Antonio, Maria Ranieri. 2016. Fondamenti di didattica. Teoria e prassi dei dispositivi formativi. Roma: Carocci.
  93. Bonini, Tiziano. 2019. “La vita sociale dei media.” Doppiozero, 12 gennaio, 2019.
  94. Borges, Jorge L. 1944. “Il giardino dei sentieri che si biforcano.” In Finzioni. Torino: Einaudi.
  95. Borges, Jorge L. 1955. La biblioteca di Babele. Torino: Einaudi.
  96. Borges, Jorge L. 2003. L’Aleph. Milano: Feltrinelli.
  97. Borrione, Paola, Abburrà Luciano, e Roberto Trinchero. 2011. Ocse-Pisa 2009: i risultati del Piemonte a confronto con le altre regioni italiane e straniere. Torino: Ires Piemonte.
  98. Bottino, Rosa M. 2013. “Libri di testo digitali per l’apprendimento”. In Pedagogia nell’era digitale, a cura di Donatella Persico, e Vittorio Midoro, 58-64. Ortona: Menabò.
  99. Bowman, Laura L., Levine Laura E., Waite B Bradley M., e Michael Gendron. 2010. “Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading.” Computers and Education, 54 (4): 927-931. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.024
  100. Boyles, Nancy. 2013. “Closing in on Close Reading.” Educational Leadership, 70 (4): 36-41.
  101. Braasch, Jason L., e Ivar Bråten. 2017. “The discrepancy-induced source comprehension (D-ISC) model: Basic assumptions and preliminary evidence.” Educational Psychologist, 52 (3): 167-181. DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2017.1323219
  102. Bråten, Ivar, e Helge I. Strømsø. 2006. “Epistemological beliefs, interest, and gender as predictors of Internet-based learning activities.” Computers in Human Behavior, 22 (6): 1027-1042. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.026
  103. Bråten, Ivar, Britt Anne M., Strømsø Helge I., e Jean-François Rouet. 2011. “The role of epistemic beliefs in the comprehension of multiple expository texts: Toward an integrated model.” Educational Psychologist, 46 (1): 48-70. DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2011.538647
  104. Bråten, Ivar, Strømsø Helge I., e Anne M. Britt. 2009. “Trust matters: Examining the role of source evaluation in students’ construction of meaning within and across multiple texts.” Reading Research Quarterly, 44 (1): 6-28. DOI: 10.1598/RRQ.44.1.1
  105. Bråten Ivar, Strømsø Helge I., e Leila E. Ferguson. 2016. “The Role of Epistemic Beliefs in the Comprehension of Single and Multiple Texts”. In Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading: Reader, Text, and Context, a cura di Peter Afflerbach, 67-79. Routledge, New York, NY.
  106. Breakstone, Joel, McGrew Sarah, Smith Mark, Ortega Teresa, e Sam Wineburg, S. 2018. “Why we need a new approach to teaching digital literacy.” Phi Delta Kappan, 99 (6): 27-32. DOI: 10.1177/0031721718762419
  107. Breakstone, Joel, Smith Mark, Connors Priscilla, Ortega Teresa, Kerr Darby, e Sam Wineburg. 2021. “Lateral reading: College students learn to critically evaluate internet sources in an online course.” Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review, 2 (1): 1-17. DOI: 10.37016/mr-2020-56
  108. Brizzolara, Daniela, Gasperini Filippo, e Sara Mazzotti. 2007. “Modelli neuropsicologici della dislessia evolutiva.” Giornale di Neuropsichiatria dell’Età Evolutiva, 27: 229-243.
  109. Brodsky, Jessica E., Brooks Patricia J., Scimeca Donna, Todorova Ralitsa, Galati Peter, Batson Michael, Grosso Robert, Matthews Michael, Miller Victor, e Michael Caulfield. 2021. “Improving college students’ fact-checking strategies through lateral reading instruction in a general education civics course.” Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 6 (23). DOI: 10.1186/s41235-021-00291-4
  110. Bronfenbrenner, Urie. 1986. Ecologia dello sviluppo umano. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  111. Brooke, Donald. 2016. “Stanford researchers find students have trouble judging the credibility of information online.” Stanford Graduate School of Education, 16 novembre, 2016.
  112. Brown, Ann L. 1981. “Metacognition: The development of selective attention strategies for learning from texts”. In Directions in reading: Research and instruction. Thirtieth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, a cura di Michael L. Kamil, 21-43. Washington, DC: National Reading Conference.
  113. Brown, Ann L., e Annemarie S. Palincsar. 1982. “Inducing strategy learning from text by means of informed, self-control training.” Center for the Study of Reading Technical Report n. 262, University of Illinois.
  114. Brun-mercer, Nicole. 2019. “Online Reading Strategies for the Classroom.” English Teaching Forum, 57 (4): 2-11.
  115. Bruschi, Barbara. 2015. “Leggere e scrivere digitale Quali cambiamenti?”. In Tecnologie e linguaggi dell’apprendimento. Le sfide della ricerca media educativa, a cura di Alberto Parola, e Lorenzo Denicolai, 59-73. Roma: Aracne.
  116. Burin, Debora I., Barreyro Juan P., Saux Gastón, e Natalia C. Irrazábal. 2015. “Navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts: Hypertext structure, previous domain knowledge, and working memory capacity.” Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 13 (3): 529-550. DOI: 10.14204/ejrep.37.14136
  117. Bus, Adriana G., Roskos Kathleen, e Karen Burstein. 2020. “Promising interactive functions in digital storybooks for young children”. In International perspectives on digital media and early literacy: The impact of digital devices on learning, language acquisition and social interaction, a cura di Katharina J. Rohlfing, e Claudia Müller-Brauers, 7-26. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429321399
  118. Bus, Adriana G., Takacs Zsofia K., e Cornelia A. T. Kegel. 2015. “Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children’s emergent literacy.” Developmental Review, 35: 79-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.dr.2014.12.004
  119. Bus, Adriana G., van IJzendoorn Marinus H., e Anthony D. Pellegrini. 1995. “Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy.” Review of Educational Research, 65 (1): 1-21. DOI: 10.3102/00346543065001001
  120. Bush, Vannevar. 1945. “As we maggio think.” Atlantic Monthly, 176: 101-108.
  121. Calvani, Antonio. 1994. Iperscuola: tecnologia e futuro dell’educazione. Padova: Muzzio.
  122. Calvani, Antonio. 2002. “Per una ‘ergonomia didattica’”. Form@re – Newsletter per la formazione in rete, 13.
  123. Calvani, Antonio. 2007. “Evidence based education: ma «funziona» il «che cosa funziona»?.” Je-LKS – Journal of e-Learning, and Knowledge Management, 3 (3): 139-146. DOI: 10.20368/1971-8829/766
  124. Calvani, Antonio. 2008. Educazione comunicazione e nuovi media: sfide pedagogiche e cyberspazio. Torino: Utet.
  125. Calvani, Antonio. 2011. “«Decision Making» nell’istruzione. «Evidence Based Education» e conoscenze sfidanti.” ECPS Journal – Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies, 3: 77-99.
  126. Calvani, Antonio. 2012. Per un’istruzione evidence based. Analisi teorico metodologica internazionale sulle didattiche efficaci ed inclusive. Trento: Erickson.
  127. Calvani, Antonio. 2013. “L’innovazione tecnologica nella scuola: come perseguire un’innovazione tecnologica sostenibile ed efficace.” Lingue e Letterature d’Oriente e d’Occidente, 2: 567-584. DOI: 10.13128/LEA-1824-484x-14592
  128. Calvani, Antonio. 2019. “Introduzione”. In Strategie efficaci per la comprensione del testo. Il Reciprocal Teaching, a cura di Antonio Calvani, e Lucia Chiappetta Cajola, 31-46. Firenze: SApIE.
  129. Calvani, Antonio, Fornili Flavia, e Maria T. Serafini. 2018. Comprendere e riassumere testi-primaria. Il metodo del Reciprocal Teaching nella scuola primaria. Trento: Erickson.
  130. Calvani, Antonio, e Giuliano Vivanet. 2014. “Evidence Based Education e modelli di valutazione formativa per le scuole.” Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies, 1 (9): 127-146. DOI: 10.7358/ecps-2014-009-calv
  131. Calvino, Italo. 1993. Lezioni americane. Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio. Milano: Mondadori.
  132. Camaioni, Luigia, e Paola Di Blasio. 2007. Psicologia dello sviluppo. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  133. Campo, Enrico. 2020. La testa altrove. L’attenzione e la sua crisi nella società digitale. Roma: Donzelli. Kindle edition.
  134. Cardarello, Roberta. 2010. “Libri e pratiche di lettura: la comprensione nell’infanzia”. In Attraversare boschi narrativi. Tra didattica e formazione, a cura di Flavia Bacchetti, 57-87. Napoli: Liguori.
  135. Cardarello, Roberta, e Annamaria Contini, a cura di. 2012. Parole, immagini e metafore. Per una didattica della comprensione. Parma: Junior Spaggiari.
  136. Cardarello, Roberta, e Andrea Pintus. 2019. “La comprensione del testo nella scuola italiana: un bilancio storico e critico”. In Strategie efficaci per la comprensione del testo. Il Reciprocal Teaching, a cura di Antonio Calvani, e Lucia Chiappetta Cajola, 47-76. Firenze: SApIE.
  137. Carillo, Ellen C. 2015. Securing a place for reading in composition: The importance of teaching for transfer. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
  138. Carillo, Ellen C. 2017. A writer's guide to mindful reading: Practice and pedagogy. Fort Collins, CO: The WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado. DOI: 10.37514/PRA-B.2017.0278
  139. Carillo, Ellen C. 2019. “Navigating this perfect storm”. Pedagogy, 19 (1): 135-59. DOI: 10.1215/15314200-7173805
  140. Carioli, Stefania. 2013. “La lettura online come nuova dimensione della literacy.” Formazione & Insegnamento, 10 (3): 189-197.
  141. Carioli, Stefania. 2014. “Verso una pedagogia innovativa della lettura: codici testuali e codici digitali.” Studi sulla formazione, 17 (2): 105-117. DOI: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-16183
  142. Carioli, Stefania. 2015. “Nel labirinto dei link. Dai “vincoli” della linearità alla complessità della lettura online.” Tesi di dottorato. Università degli Studi di Firenze.
  143. Carioli, Stefania. 2016. “Lettura online e nuove necessità formative. Le opportunità del Think Aloud.” Formazione & Insegnamento, 14 (3): 461-472.
  144. Carioli, Stefania. 2018. Narrazioni digitali nella letteratura per l’infanzia. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  145. Carioli, Stefania, e Andrea Peru. 2016. “The Think-Aloud approach: A Promising Tool for Online Reading Comprehension.” Journal of Media Literacy Education, 8 (1): 49-61.
  146. Carr, Nicholas. 2010. Internet ci rende stupidi? Come la rete sta cambiando il nostro cervello. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  147. Carrasco, Marisa. 2011. “Visual attention: the past 25 years.” Vis. Res., 51 (13): 1484-1525. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2011.04.012
  148. Carrier, Mark L., Cheever Nancy A., Rosen Larry D., Benitez Sandra, e Jennifer Chang. 2009. “Multitasking across generations: Multitasking choices and difficulty ratings in three generations of Americans.” Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (20): 483-489. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.10.012
  149. Caruana, Fausto, e Anna M. Borghi. 2016. Il cervello in azione. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  150. Casati, Roberto. 2013. Contro il colonialismo digitale. Istruzioni per continuare a leggere. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  151. Casati, Roberto. 2017. “Il grande cambiamento dei nostri tempi: l’era digitale.” Scuola Ticinese, 327: 17-26.
  152. Castek, Jill. 2008. “How do 4th and 5th grade students acquire the new literacies of online reading comprehension? Exploring the contexts that facilitate learning.” PhD diss., University of Connecticut.
  153. Castek, Jill. 2013. “Supporting Online Reading comprehension Through Internet Reciprocal Teaching.” California Reader, 47 (1): 38-43.
  154. Castek, Jill, Coiro Julie, Henry Laurie A., Leu Donald J., e Douglas K. Hartman. 2015. “Research on instruction and assessment in the new literacies of online research and comprehension”. In From comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices, a cura di Sheri R. Parris, e Kathy Headley, 324-344. New York: The Guildford Press.
  155. Castek, Jill, Zawilinski Lisa, McVerry Greg J., O’Byrne, Ian, e Donald J. Leu. 2011. “The new literacies of online reading comprehension: New opportunities and challenges for students with learning difficulties”. In Multiple perspectives on difficulties in learning literacy and numeracy, a cura di Claire Wyatt-Smith, John Elkins, e Stephanie Gunn, 91-110. New York, NY: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8864-3_4
  156. Cataldi, Pietro. 2013. “La scuola è aperta a tutti.” laletteraturaenoi, 10 gennaio, 2013.
  157. Cavallo, Guglielmo, e Roger Chartier. 1995. Storia della lettura nel mondo occidentale. Bari: Laterza.
  158. Cavanaugh, Michael J., Giapponi Catherine C., e Timothy D. Golden. 2016. “Digital technology and student cognitive development: The neuroscience of the university classroom.” Journal of Management Education, 40 (4): 374-397. DOI: 10.1177/1052562915614051
  159. CEPELL-AIE. 2021. Dall’emergenza a un piano per la ripartenza. Libro bianco sulla lettura e i consumi culturali in Italia (2020-2021).
  160. Chan, Eveline, e Len Unsworth. 2011. “Image-language interaction in online reading environments: challenges for student' reading comprehension.” Australian Educational Researcher, 38: 181-202. DOI: 10.1007/s13384-011-0023-y
  161. Chartier, Roger. 1994. The Order of the Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe Between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Standford: Standford University Press.
  162. Chaudron, Stephane. 2015. “Young children (0–8) and digital technology: A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries.” Joint Research Centre, the European Commission’s in-house science service JRC 93239/EUR 27052.
  163. Chen, Chih-Ming, e Sheng-Hui Huang. 2014. “Web-based reading annotation system with an attention-based self-regulated learning mechanism for promoting reading performance.” British Journal of Educational Technology, 45 (5): 959-980. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12119
  164. Chen, Dar-Wei, e Richard Catrambone. 2015. “Paper vs. Screen: Effects on Reading Comprehension, Metacognition, and Reader Behavior.” Proceedings Of The Human Factors And Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 59 (1): 332-336. DOI: 10.1177/1541931215591069
  165. Chen, Guang, Cheng Wei, Chang Ting-Wen, Zheng Xiaoxia, e Ronghuai Huang. 2014. “A comparison of reading comprehension across paper, computer screens, and tablets: does tablet familiarity matter?” Journal of Computers in Education, 1: 213-225. DOI: 10.1007/s40692-014-0012-z
  166. Chen, Ming C., Wu Ting F., Lin Yun L., Tasi Ya H., e Hui C. Chen. 2009. “The effect of different representations on reading digital text for students with cognitive disabilities.” British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (4): 764-770. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00869.x
  167. Cheng, Kun-Hung, e Chin-Chung Tsai. 2011. “An investigation of Taiwan university students’ perceptions of online academic help seeking, and their web-based learning self-efficacy.” The Internet and Higher Education, 14 (3): 150-157. DOI: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.04.002
  168. Cheung, Alan C. K., e Robert E. Slavin. 2012. “Effectiveness of educational technology applications for enhancing reading achievement in K-12 classrooms: A meta-analysis.” Baltimore, MD: Center for Research and Reform in Education, Johns Hopkins University. DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2013.01.001
  169. Cheung, Alan C. K., e Robert E. Slavin. 2013. “How features of educational technology programs affect student reading outcomes: A meta-analysis.” Educational Research Review, 9 (1): 88-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2012.05.002
  170. Cheung, Alan C. K., e Robert E. Slavin. 2013. “Effects of educational technology applications on reading outcomes for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis.” Reading Research Quarterly, 48 (3): 277-299.
  171. Chiong, Cynthia, Ree Jinny, Takeuchi Lori, e Ingrid Erickson. 2012. “Print books vs. e-books: Comparing parent-child co-reading on print, basic, and enhanced e-book platforms.” New York, NY: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center.
  172. Chiong, Cynthia, e Carly Shuler. 2010. “Learning: Is there an app for that? Investigations of young children's usage and learning with mobile devices and apps.” New York, NY: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.
  173. Cho, Byeong-Young. 2014. “Competent Adolescent Readers’ Use of Internet Reading Strategies: A Think-Aloud Study.” Cognition and Instruction, 32 (3): 253-289. DOI: 10.1080/07370008.2014.918133
  174. Cho, Byeong-Young. 2013. “Adolescents’ constructively responsive reading strategy use in a critical Internet reading task.” Reading Research Quarterly, 48 (4): 329-332.
  175. Cho, Byeong-Young, e Peter Afflerbach. 2015. “Reading on the Internet: Realizing and constructing potential texts.” Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 58 (6): 504-517. DOI: 10.1002/jaal.387
  176. Cho, Byeong‑Young, e Peter Afflerbach. 2017. “An evolving perspective of constructively responsive reading comprehension strategies in multilayered digital text environments”. In Handbook of research on reading comprehension, second edition, a cura di Susan E. Israel, 109-134. New York: The Guilford Press.
  177. Cho, Byeong Young, Han Hyeju, e Linda L. Kucan. 2018. “An exploratory study of middle school learners' historical reading in an Internet environment.” Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 31 (7): 1525-1549. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-018-9847-4
  178. Chomsky, Noam. 2011. “Diez estrategias de manipulación mediática.” Revista Archipiélago de la Universidad Autónoma de México, 19 (73): 7-8.
  179. Chou, Chien, Condron Linda, e John C. Belland. 2005. “A review of the research on internet addiction.” Educational Psychological Review, 17 (4): 363-388. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-005-8138-1
  180. Choudhury, Suparna, e Kelly A. McKinney. 2013. “Digital media, the developing brain and the interpretive plasticity of neuroplasticity.” Transcultural Psychiatry, 50 (2): 192-215. DOI: 10.1177/1363461512474623
  181. Christ, Tanya, Wang Christine X., Chiu Ming M., e Hyonsuk Cho. 2019. “Kindergartener’s meaning-making with multimodal app books: The relations amongst reader characteristics, app book characteristics, and comprehension outcomes.” Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47: 357-372. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.01.003
  182. Christenson, Sandra L., Reschly Amy, e Cathy Wylie, a cura di. 2012. Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. New York, NY: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7
  183. Ciotti, Fabio, e Gino Roncaglia. 2000. Il mondo digitale: introduzione ai nuovi media. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  184. Ciracì, Fabio. 2021. “Per una teoria critica del digitale: fake-news e postverità alla luce della logica della verosimiglianza”. In filosofia digitale, a cura di Riccardo Fedriga, Fabio Ciracì, e Cristina Marras, 87-112. Milano-Udine: Mimesis.
  185. Citton, Yves. 2014. Pour une écologie de l’attention. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
  186. Clark, Irene L., e Andrea Hernandez. 2011. “Genre awareness, academic argument, and transferability.” The WAC Journal, 22: 65-78. DOI: 10.37514/WAC-J.2011.22.1.05
  187. Clark, Ruth C. 2010. Evidence-based training methods. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.
  188. Clark, Ruth C., e Chopeta Lyons. 2011. Graphics for Learning: Proven Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Evaluating Visuals in Training Materials. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
  189. Clark, Ruth C., e Richard E. Mayer. 2008. e-Learning and the science of instruction (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
  190. Clark, Ruth C., e Richard E. Mayer. 2016. E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  191. Clark, Ruth C., Nguyen Frank, e John Sweller. 2006. Efficiency in learning, Evidence Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load. San Francisco: Wiley & Sons.
  192. Clinton, Virginia. 2019. “Reading from paper compared to screens: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Journal of Research in Reading, 42 (2): 288-325. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9817.12269
  193. Cohn, Jenae. 2021. Skim, Dive, Surface: Teaching Digital Reading. West Virginia University Press. Kindle edition.
  194. Coiro, Julie. 2011. “Predicting reading comprehension on the Internet: Contributions of offline reading skills, online reading skills, and prior knowledge.” Journal of Literacy Research, 43 (4): 352-392. DOI: 10.1177/1086296X11421979
  195. Coiro, Julie. 2014. “Online Reading Comprehension: Challenges and Opportunities.” Texto Livre: Linguagem e Tecnologia, 7 (2): 30-43. DOI: 10.17851/1983-3652.7.2.30-43
  196. Coiro, Julie. 2015. “Purposeful, critical, and flexible: Vital dimensions of online reading and learning”. In Reading at a crossroads? Disjunctures and continuities in current conceptions and practices, a cura di Rand J. Spiro, Michael DeSchryver, Michelle Schira Hagerman, Paul M. Morsink, e Penny Thompson, 92-110. New York: Routledge.
  197. Coiro, Julie. 2020. “Toward a multifaceted heuristic of digital reading to inform assessment, research, practice, and policy”. Reading Research Quarterly, 56 (1): 9-31.
  198. Coiro, Julie, Coscarelli Carla, Maykel Cheryl, e Elena Forzani. 2015a. “Investigating criteria that seventh graders use to evaluate the quality of online information.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 59 (1): 1-11. DOI: 10.1002/jaal.448
  199. Coiro, Julie, e Elizabeth Dobler. 2007. “Exploring the Online Reading Comprehension Strategies Used by Sixth-Grade Skilled Readers to Search for and Locate Information on the Internet.” Reading Research Quarterly, 42 (2): 214-257.
  200. Coiro, Julie, Knobel Michele, Lankshear, Colin, e Donald J. Leu. 2008. “Central issues in new literacies and new literacies research”. In Handbook of research on new literacies, a cura di Julie Coiro, Michele Knobel, Colin Lankshear, Donald J. Leu, 1-22. New York: Routledge.
  201. Coiro, Julie, Knobel Michele, Lankshear Colin, e Donald J. Leu. 2015b. The Handbook of Research on New Literacies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  202. Cole, Jill E. 2002. “What Motivates Students to Read? Four Literacy Personalities”. The Reading Teacher, 56 (4): 326-336.
  203. Collins, Allan, Brown John S., e Ann Holum. 1991. “Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible.” American Educator, 15 (3): 6-11.
  204. Collins, Allan, Brown John S., e Susan E. Newman. 1987. “Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing”. In Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser, a cura di Lauren Resnick, 453-494. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  205. Colwell, Jamie, Hunt-Barron Sarah, e David Reinking. 2013. “Obstacles to developing digital literacy on the Internet in middle school science instruction.” Journal of Literacy Research, 45 (3): 295-324. DOI: 10.1177/1086296X13493273
  206. Cope, Bill, e Mary Kalantzis. 2000. Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures. London: Routledge.
  207. Cope, Bill, e Mary Kalantzis. 2015. “An introduction to the pedagogy of multiliteracies”. In A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Learning by design, a cura di Bill Cope, e Mary Kalantzis, 1-36. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1057/9781137539724_1
  208. Cristia, Alejandrina, e Amanda Seidl. 2015. “Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.” PLoS ONE, 10 (6): e0128338. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128338
  209. Crogan, Patrick, e Samuel Kinsley. 2012. “Paying attention: Towards a critique of the attention economy.” Culture Machine, 13: 1-29.
  210. Cromley, Jennifer G., e Roger Azevedo. 2009. “Locating information within extended hypermedia.” Educational Technology Research & Development, 57 (3): 287-313. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-008-9106-5
  211. Cromley, Jennifer G., e Roger Azevedo. 2011. Measuring strategy use in context with multiple-choice items. Metacognition and Learning, 6 (2): 155-177. DOI: 10.1007/s11409-011-9070-z
  212. Crystal, David. 2008. How language works. London: Penguin Books.
  213. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1990. “Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.” Journal of Leisure Research, 24 (1): 93-94. DOI: 10.1080/00222216.1992.11969876
  214. Cuban, Larry. 1986. Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.
  215. Dahan Golan, Danielle, Barzillai Mirit, e Tami Katzir. 2018. “The effect of presentation mode on children’s reading preferences, performance, and self-evaluations.” Computers & Education, 126: 346358. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.08.001
  216. Daneman, Meredyth, e Patricia A. Carpenter. 1980. “Individual differences in working memory and reading.” Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 19 (4): 450-466. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5371(80)90312-6
  217. Daneman, Meredyth, e Philip Merikle. 1996. “Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3 (4): 422-433. DOI: 10.3758/BF03214546
  218. Daniel, David B., e William D. Woody. 2013. “E-textbooks at what cost? Performance and use of electronic v. print texts.” Computers & Education, 62: 18-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.016
  219. Darnton, Robert. 2011. Il futuro del libro. Milano: Adelphi.
  220. Davenport, Thomas H., e John C. Beck. 2001. The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Cambridge: MA: Harvard Business School Press.
  221. Dean, Jodi. 2010. Blog Theory: Feedback and Capture in the Circuits of Drive. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  222. De Beni, Rossana, e Francesca Pazzaglia. 1998. “La teoria metacognitiva applicata alla comprensione della lettura: dalla riflessione sulle conoscenze all’introduzione di variabili emotivo-motivazionali”. In Metacognizione ed educazione. Processi, apprendimenti, strumenti, a cura di Ottavia Albanese, Pierre-André Doudin, e Daniel Martin, 161-185. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  223. De Biase, Luca. 2011. Cambiare pagina: Per sopravvivere ai media della solitudine. Milano: BUR Rizzoli.
  224. De Biase, Luca. 2012. “Istituzionale/Informale”. In La didattica del futuro, a cura di Alessandra Anichini, 35-66. Milano-Torino: Pearson.
  225. De Biase, Luca. 2017. Economia della felicità. Dalla blogosfera al valore del dono e oltre. Milano: Feltrinelli.
  226. Dehaene, Stanislas. 2009. I neuroni della lettura. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  227. Dehaene, Stanislas. 2014. “Inside the letterbox: How literacy transforms the human brain”. In The Dana Foundation's Cerebrum. Cerebrum 2013: Emerging ideas in brain science, a cura di Bill Glovin, 55-69. New York, NY: Dana Pres.
  228. de Jong, Maria T., e Adriana G. Bus. 2002. “Quality of book-reading matters for emergent readers: An experiment with the same book in regular or electronic format.” Journal of Educational Psychology, 94 (1): 145-155. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.145
  229. de Jong, Maria T., e Adriana G. Bus. 2003. “How well suited are electronic books to supporting literacy?” Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 3 (2): 147-164. DOI: 10.1177/14687984030032002
  230. De Kerckhove, Derrick. 1993. Brainframes. Mente, tecnologia, mercato. Bologna: Baskerville.
  231. De Kerckhove, Derrick. 1994. “Remapping sensoriale nella realtà virtuale e nelle altre tecnologie ciberattive”. In Il corpo tecnologico, a cura di Luigi P. Capucci, 45-60. Bologna: Baskerville.
  232. Dekker, Sanne, Lee Nikki C., Howard-Jones Paul, e Jelle Jolles. 2012. “Neuromyths in education: prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers.” Frontiers in Psychology, 3: Article 429. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00429
  233. Delany, Paul, e George P. Landow. 1990. Hypermedia and literary studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  234. Deleuze, Gilles, e Félix Guattari. 1976. Rhizome. Paris: Minuit.
  235. Delgado, Pablo, e Ladislao Salmerón. 2021. “The inattentive on-screen reading: Reading medium affects attention and reading comprehension under time pressure.” Learning and Instruction, 71: 101396. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2020.101396
  236. Delgado, Pablo, Vargas Cristina, Ackerman Rakefet, e Ladislao Salmerón. 2018. “Don’t throw away your printed books: A meta-analysis on the effects of reading media on comprehension.” Educational Research Review, 25: 23-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2018.09.003
  237. Dell’Acqua, Roberto, e Massimo Turatto. 2006. Attenzione e percezione. I processi cognitivi tra psicologia e neuroscienze. Roma: Carocci.
  238. Della Rocca, Mattia. 2015. “In the Flesh? Appunti critici sul neuroessenzialismo.” Scienza e Societa?, 21/22: 35-42.
  239. Demopolis. 2019. Gli italiani e la povertà educativa. Palermo: Istituto Nazionale di Ricerche.
  240. Dennis, Alan R., Abaci Serdar, Morrone Anastasia S., Plaskoff Joshua, e Kelly O. McNamara. 2016. “Effects of e- textbook instructor annotations on learner performance.” Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 28 (2): 221-235. DOI: 10.1007/s12528-016-9109-x
  241. DeStefano, Diana, e Jo-Anne LeFevre. 2007. “Cognitive load in hypertext reading: A review.” Computers In Human Behavior, 23 (3): 1616-1641. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2005.08.012
  242. Devitt, Amy J. 2004. Writing genres. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  243. Di Bari, Cosimo. 2015. “Prima infanzia e tecnologie digitali.” Profiling. I profili dell’abuso, 6 (4).
  244. Di Nocera, Francesco. 2011. Ergonomia Cognitiva. Roma: Carocci.
  245. Di Paolo, Paolo, e Carlo Albarello. 2018. C’erano anche ieri i giovani d'oggi. Generazione, memoria, scuola fra Novecento e Duemila. Roma: Città Nuova Editrice.
  246. Di Stefano, Paolo. 2012. “I nuovi analfabeti.” Corriere della Sera.
  247. Digital Transformations Institute. 2017. “Fake News: 10 riflessioni dalle quali (ri)partire per affrontare il problema”. 5 dicembre, 2017.
  248. Dirin, Amir, Alamäki, Ari, e Jyrki Suomala. 2019. “Digital amnesia and personal dependency in smart devices: A challenge for AI.” Proceedings of the Fake Intelligence Online Summit 2019, Pori, Finland, 7 maggio 2019, a cura di Harri Ketamo e Petra O’Rourke, 18-22. Pori: Satakunta University of Applied Sciences.
  249. Dobler, Elizabeth, e Maya B. Eagleton. 2015. Reading the web: Strategies for internet inquiry (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
  250. Dobler, Elizabeth. 2015. “E-textbooks: A personalized learning experience or a digital distraction?” Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 58 (6): 478-487. DOI: 10.1002/jaal.391
  251. Doctorow, Cory. 2009. “Writing in the Age of Distraction.” Locus Magazine, 7 gennaio, 2009.
  252. Doidge, Norman. 2007. The brain that changes itself: stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science. New York: Viking.
  253. Domènech, Francesch J. 2009. Elogio de la educación lenta. Barcelona: Grao.
  254. Downs, Doug. 2021. “Critical Reading in a Screen Paradigm: From Deficit to Default.” Pedagogy, 21 (2): 205-224. DOI: 10.1215/15314200-8811398
  255. Duke, Nell K., e David P. Pearson. 2002. “Effective practices for developing reading comprehension”. In What research has to say about reading instruction, a cura di Alan E. Farstrup, e Samuels J. Samuels, 205-242. Newark, Del: International Reading Association.
  256. Eagan, Kevin. 2013. “Interview with N. Katherine Hayles - Author, Editor and Postmodern Literary Critic.” Medium, 31 luglio, 2013.
  257. Eastwood, John D., Frischen Alexandra, Fenske Mark J., e Daniel Smilek. 2012. “The unengaged mind: Defining boredom in terms of attention.” Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7 (5): 482-495. DOI: 10.1177/1745691612456044
  258. Ebner, Rachel J., e Linnea C. Ehri. 2013. “Vocabulary Learning on the Internet: Using a Structured Think Aloud Procedure.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56 (6): 480-489. DOI: 10.1002/JAAL.169
  259. Eco, Umberto. 2001. Lector in Fabula. Milano: Bompiani.
  260. Eco, Umberto. 2003. “Librai e millennio prossimo”. In Vent’anni di scuola per librai Umberto e Elisabetta Mauri 1983-2003, a cura di Umberto Mauri, e Elisabetta Mauri, 359-370. Milano: Scuola per Librai Umberto e Elisabetta Mauri.
  261. Eden, Sigal, e Yoram Eshet-Alkalai. 2012. “The effect of format on performance: Editing text in print versus digital formats.” British Journal of Educational Technology, 44 (5): 846-856. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01332.x
  262. Eden, Sigal, Shamir Adina, e Maayan Fershtman. 2012. “Making a difference: Using laptops as a support for spelling improvement among students with learning disability”. In Technology as a support for literacy achievements for children at risk, a cura di Adina Shamir, e Ofra Korat, 199-209. Dordrecht: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5119-4_13
  263. eFFe, a cura di. 2011. La lettura digitale e il web. Milano: Ledizioni.
  264. Eisenstein, Elizabeth. 1979. The printing press as an agent of change: communications and cultural transformations in early modern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  265. Eliot, Thomas S. 2014. La terra desolata. Quattro quartetti. Milano: Feltrinelli.
  266. Eng, Cassondra M., Anthony S. Tomasic, e Erik D. Thiessen. 2019. “Contingent responsivity in e-books modeled from quality adult-child interactions: Effects on children’s learning and attention.” Developmental Psychology, 56 (2): 285-297. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000869
  267. E-READ. 2019. Stavanger Declaration on the Future of Reading (2019).
  268. Eyal, Nir. 2014. Hooked: How to build habit-forming products. New York, NY: Penguin Random House.
  269. Farah, Martha J., e Cayce J. H. Hook. 2013. “The seductive allure of ‘seductive allure’”. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8 (1): 88-90. DOI: 10.1177/1745691612469035
  270. Farinosi, Manuela, Lim Christopher, e Julia Roll. 2016. “Book or screen, pen or keyboard? A cross-cultural sociological analysis of writing and reading habits basing on Germany, Italy and the UK.” Telematics and Informatics, 33 (2): 410-421. DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2015.09.006
  271. FCC-USDOE (Federal Communications Commission – U.S. Department of Education). 2012. Digital Textbook Playbook.
  272. Feather, John, e Paul Sturges, a cura di. 1997. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science. New York, NY: Routledge.
  273. Fenichel, Otto. 1951. “On the psychology of boredom”. In Organization and pathology of thought: Selected sources, a cura di David Rapaport, 349-361. Columbia University Press. DOI: 10.1037/10584-018
  274. Fernandez-Duque, Diego, Evans Jessica, Christian Colton, e Sara D. Hodges. 2015. “Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27 (5): 926-944. DOI: 10.1162/jocn_a_00750
  275. Fesel, Sabine S., Segers Eliane, Clariana Roy B., e Ludo Verhoeven. 2015. “Quality of children’s knowledge representations in digital text comprehension: Evidence from pathfinder networks.” Computers in Human Behavior, 48: 135-146. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.014
  276. Fidler, Roger. 2000. Mediamorfosi. Comprendere i nuovi media. Milano: Guerini e Associati.
  277. Fielding, Jennifer A. 2019. “Rethinking CRAAP: Getting students thinking like fact-checkers in evaluating web sources.” College & Research Libraries News, 80 (11): 620-622. DOI: 10.5860/crln.80.11.620
  278. Fioroni, Federica. 2013. “Neuroscienze e lettura.” Enthymema, 8: 223-229. DOI: 10.13130/2037-2426/3039
  279. Firth, Joseph, Torous John, Stubbs Brendon, Firth, Josh A., Steiner Genevieve Z., Smith Lee, Alvarez-Jimenez Mario, Gleeson John, Vancampfort Davy, Armitage Christopher J., e Jerome Sarris. 2019. “The ‘online brain’: how the Internet may be changing our cognition.” World Psychiatry, 18 (2): 119-129. DOI: 10.1002/wps.20617
  280. Fisher, Cynthia D. 1993. “Boredom at work: A neglected concept.” Human Relations, 46 (3): 395-417. DOI: 10.1177/001872679304600305
  281. Fitzpatrick, Noel. 2013. “Digital Reading: A Question of Prelectio?”. In Internet Research, Theory, and Practice: Perspectives from Ireland, a cura di Cathy Fowley, Claire English, e Sylvie Thouësny, 95-110. Dublin:
  282. Flaherty, Michael G. 1999. A Watched Pot. How We Experience Time. New York: New York University Press.
  283. Flanagin, Andrew J., e Miriam J. Metzger. 2010. Kids and credibility: An empirical examination of youth, digital media use, and information credibility. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  284. Fletcher, Jo, e Karen Nicholas. 2016. “Reading for 11–13-year-old students in the digital age: New Zealand case studies.” Education, 3-13: 1-12. DOI: 10.1080/03004279.2016.1170064
  285. Fletcher, Geoffrey, Schaffhauser Dian, e Douglas Levin. 2012. “Out of Print: Reimagining the K-12 Textbook in a Digital Age.” Washington, DC: State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA).
  286. Forzani, Elena, e Cheryl Maykel. 2013. “Evaluating Connecticut Students’ Ability to Critically Evaluate Online Information.” CARReader, 10: 23-37.
  287. Fox, Annie B., Rosen Jonathan, e Mary Crawford. 2009. “Distractions, distractions: Does instant messaging affect college students’ performance on a concurrent reading comprehension task?” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 12 (1): 51-53. DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2008.0107
  288. Franceschini, Enrico. 2010. “Ribellarsi a Twitter e leggere con lentezza.” La Repubblica, 16 luglio, 2010. <> (2021-08-19).
  289. Franck, George. 2014. “L’économie de l’attention”. In L’Économie de l’attention a cura di Yves Citton, 55-72. Paris: La Découverte.
  290. Franzen, Jonathan. 2001. The corrections. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  291. Fuchs, Christian, e David Chandler. 2019. “Introduction: Big Data Capitalism-Politics, Activism, and Theory.” In Digital Objects, Digital Subjects: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Capitalism, Labour and Politics in the Age of Big Data, a cura di David Chandler, e Christian Fuchs, 1-10. London: University of Westminster Press. DOI: 10.16997/book29
  292. Furedi, Frank. 2015. “Digital devices are destroying our concentration and memory is a myth.” The Independent, 11 ottobre, 2015.
  293. Furenes, May I., Kucirkova Natalia, e Adriana Bus. 2021. “A Comparison of Children’s Reading on Paper Versus Screen: A Meta-Analysis.” Review of Educational Research, 91 (4): 483-517. DOI: 10.3102/0034654321998074
  294. Gallese, Vittorio. 2008. “Mirror neurons and the social nature of language: The neural exploitation hypothesis.” Social Neuroscience, 3 (3-4): 317-33. DOI: 10.1080/17470910701563608
  295. Gallese, Vittorio, Conte Rosaria, Menghi Sergio, e Vincenzo Pavone. 2010. Presentazione. Quaderni di Sociologia, 53: 3-34. DOI: 10.4000/qds.697
  296. Galloway, Anne M. 2003. “Improving reading comprehension through metacognitive strategy instruction: Evaluating the evidence for the effectiveness of the reciprocal teaching procedure.” PhD diss., University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
  297. Gantz, Walter. 1982. “Television the surrogate parent: uses and correlates of television as babysitter.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism, Athens, Ohio, 25-28 July 1982.
  298. Gardiner, Eileen, e Ronald G. Musto. 2010. “The Electronic Book”. In The Oxford Companion to the Book, a cura di Michael S. Suarez, e H. R. Woudhuysen, 164-171. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
  299. Gazzaley, Adam, e Larry D. Rosen. 2016. The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  300. Geake, John. 2008. “Neuromythologies in education.” Educational Research, 50 (2): 123-133. DOI: 10.1080/00131880802082518
  301. Gee, James P. 2003. What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  302. Genette, Gérard. 1982. Palimpsestes. La litérature au second degré. Paris: Seuil.
  303. Genette, Gérard. 1989. Soglie. I dintorni del testo. Torino: Einaudi.
  304. Gentile, Maurizio. 2018. “Insegnare a comprendere da testo scritto, studio di psicologia della formazione.” CNOS-FAP, 1-40. <> (2021-08-19).
  305. Georgiou, Harris V. 2014. “Estimating the Intrinsic Dimension in fMRI Space Via Dataset Fractal Analysis - Counting the 'Cpu Cores' of the Human Brain.”, 1410.7100.
  306. Gerjets, Peter, Kammerer Yvonne, e Benita Werner. 2011. “Measuring spontaneous and instructed evaluation processes during web search: Integrating concurrent thinking-aloud protocols and eye tracking data.” Learning and Instruction, 21: 220-231. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.02.005
  307. Gerlach, Jin, e Peter Buxmann. 2011. “Investigating the acceptance of electronic books: The impact of haptic dissonance on innovation adoption.” Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Helsinki, 9-11 June 2011.
  308. Geva, Esther, e Gloria Ramírez. 2015. Focus on Reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  309. Gibson, James J. 1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  310. Goetz, Thomas, Frenzel Anne C., Hall Nathan C., Nett Ulrike E., Pekrun Reinhard, e Anastasiya A. Lipnevich. 2014. “Types of boredom: An experience sampling approach.” Motivation and Emotion, 38 (3): 401-419. DOI: 10.1007/s11031-013-9385-y
  311. Gogan, Brian. 2013. “Reading at the threshold.” Across the Disciplines, 10 (4): 1-21. DOI: 10.37514/ATD-J.2013.10.4.13
  312. Goldhaber, Michael H. 1997. “The attention economy and the Net.” First Monday, 2 (4). DOI: 10.5210/fm.v2i4.519
  313. Goldman, Susan R., Braasch Jason L. G., Wiley Jennifer, Graesser Arthur C., e Kamila Brodowinska. 2012. “Comprehending and learning from Internet sources: Processing patterns of better and poorer learners.” Reading Research Quarterly, 47 (4): 356-381. DOI: 10.1002/RRQ.027
  314. Goleman, Daniel. 2013. Focus. Come mantenersi concentrati nell’era della distrazione. Milano: Bur Rizzoli.
  315. Goody, Jack. 1988. La Logica della scrittura e l’organizzazione della società. Torino: Einaudi.
  316. Goody, Jack, e Ian Watt. 1962. “The consequences of literacy.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 5 (3): 304-345.
  317. Greene, Jeffrey A., Sandoval William A., e Ivar Bråten, a cura di. 2016. Handbook of epistemic cognition. New York: Routledge.
  318. Greenfield, Patricia M. 2009. “Technology and Informal Education: What Is Taught, What Is Learned.” Science, 323 (5910): 69-71. DOI: 10.1126/science.1167190
  319. Greenfield, Susan. 2015. Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains. New York, NY: Random House.
  320. Grimshaw, Shirley, Dungworth Naomi, McKnight Cliff, e Anne Morris. 2007. Electronic books: Children’s reading and comprehension. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(4), 583-599. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2006.00640.x
  321. Grossman, Lev. 2010. “Jonathan Franzen: Great American Novelist.” Time, 12 agosto, 2010.
  322. Gu, Xiaoqing, Wu Bian, e Xiaojuan Xu. 2014. “Design, development, and learning in e-Textbooks: what we learned and where we are going.” Journal of Computers in Education, 2 (1): 25-41. DOI: 10.1007/s40692-014-0023-9
  323. Guernsey, Lisa, e Michael H. Levine. 2015. Tap, click, read: Growing readers in a world of screens. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass & Pfeiffer Imprints.
  324. Guglielman, Eleonora. 2014. “Il cervello plastico. Fondamenti neurofisiologici e strategie efficaci per l’apprendimento permanente”. In Nuovi Processi e Paradigmi per la Didattica. Atti del convegno Didamatica, Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, 7-9 maggio 2014, 339-347.
  325. Guthrie, John T., Klauda Susan Lutz, e Amy N. Ho. 2013. “Modeling the Relationships Among Reading Instruction, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement for Adolescents.” Reading Research Quarterly, 48 (1): 9-26. DOI: 10.1002/rrq.035
  326. Haas, Christina. 1996. Writing technology: Studies on the materiality of literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  327. Hahnel, Carolin, Goldhammer Frank, Naumann Johannes, e Ulf Kröhne. 2016. “Effects of linear reading, basic computer skills, evaluating online information, and navigation on reading digital text.” Computers in Human Behavior, 55(Part A): 486-500. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.042
  328. Halamish, Vered, e Elisya Elbaz. 2020. “Children's reading comprehension and metacomprehension on screen versus on paper.” Computers & Education, 145: Article 103737. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103737
  329. Hamdan, Nurul A., Mohamad Maslawati, e Shahizan Shaharuddin. 2017. “Hypermedia Reading Materials: Undergraduate Perceptions and Features Affecting Their Reading Comprehension.” The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15 (2): 116-125.
  330. Hand, Martin. 2016. “#Boredom: technology, acceleration, and connected presence in the social media age”. In Boredom Studies Reader: Frameworks and Perspectives, a cura di Michael E. Gardiner, e Julian J. Haladyn, 115-129. New York: Routledge.
  331. Hargittai, Eszter, Fullerton Lindsay, Menchen-Trevino Ericka, e Kristin Y. Thomas. 2010. “Trust online: Young adults’ evaluation of web content.” International Journal of Communication, 4: 468-494.
  332. Harlan, Chico. 2012. “In South Korean Classrooms, Digital Textbook Revolution Meets Some Resistance.” The Washington Post, 24 marzo, 2012.
  333. Harris, Michael. 2014. The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection. New York: Current.
  334. Harris, Tristan. 2016. “How Technology is Hijacking Your Mind — from a Magician and Google Design Ethicist.” Medium, 18 maggio, 2016.
  335. Harris, Theodore L., e Richard E. Hodges. 1995. The literacy dictionary: the vocabulary of reading and writing. Newark, DE, USA: International Reading Association.
  336. Harrison, Colin. 2012. “Literacy, technology and the Internet: What are the challenges and opportunities for learners with reading difficulties, and how do we support them in meeting those challenges and grasping those opportunities?”. In Multiple perspectives on difficulties in learning literacy and numeracy, a cura di Claire Wyatt-Smith, John Elkins, e Stephanie Gunn, 111-132. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8864-3_5
  337. Hart, Michael. 1992. “The History and Philosophy of Project Gutenberg.” Project Gutenberg.
  338. Hart, Michael. 2004. “Gutenberg Mission Statement.” Project Gutenberg.
  339. Hattie, John. 2009. Visible Learning. A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. London-New York: Routledge.
  340. Hattie, John, e Helen Timperley. 2007. “The Power of Feedback.” Review Of Educational Research, 77 (1): 81-112. DOI: 10.3102/003465430298487
  341. Havelock, Eric A. 1963. Preface to Plato. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  342. Havelock, Eric A. 1976. Origins of Western literacy. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
  343. Havelock, Eric A. 1986. The Muse Learns to Write. Reflections on Orality and Literacy from Antiquity to the Present. New Haven-London: Yale University Press.
  344. Hawisher, Gail E., e Scott Filkins. 2015. “ Negotiating new relationships between online reading and writing”. In Reading at a crossroads? Disjunctures and continuities in current conceptions and practices, a cura di Rand J. Spiro, Michael DeSchryver, Michelle Schira Hagerman, Paul M. Morsink, e Penny Thompson, 115-126. New York: Routledge.
  345. Hayles, Katherine N. 2007. “Hyper and deep attention. The generational divide in cognitive modes.” Profession, 13: 187-199.
  346. Hayles, Katherine N. 2010. “How we read: Close, hyper, machine.” ADE Bulletin, 150: 62-79.
  347. Hayles, Katherine N. 2012. How We Think: Digital Media and Contemporary Technogenesis. The University of Chicago Press.
  348. Henry, Laurie A. 2006. “SEARCHing for an Answer: The Critical Role of New Literacies While Reading on the Internet.” The Reading Teacher, 59 (7): 614-627. DOI: 10.1598/RT.59.7.1
  349. Henry, Laurie A., Castek Jill, O'Byrne, Ian W., e Lisa Zawilinski. 2012. “Using peer collaboration to support online reading, writing, and communication: An empoverment model for struggling readers.” Reading and Writing Quarterly, 28 (3): 279-306. DOI: 10.1080/10573569.2012.676431
  350. Herold, Benjamin. 2014. “Digital reading poses learning challenges for students.” EducationWeek, 6 maggio, 2014.
  351. Herther, Nancy K. 2009. “Digital natives and immigrants: What brain science tells us.” Online (Wilton, Connecticut), 33 (6): 15-21.
  352. Hertwig, Ralph, e Christoph Engel. 2016. “Homo ignorans: Deliberately choosing not to know.” Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11 (3): 359-372. DOI: 10.1177/1745691616635594
  353. Hillesund, Terje. 2001. “Will E-books Change the World?” First Monday, 6 (10). DOI: 10.5210/fm.v6i10.891
  354. Hillesund, Terje. 2010. “Digital reading spaces: How expert readers handle books, the Web and electronic paper.” First Monday, 15 (4). DOI: 10.5210/fm.v15i4.2762
  355. Hillier, Robert. 2008. “Sylexiad: A typeface for the adult dyslexic reader.” Journal of Writing in Creative Practice, 1 (3): 275-291. DOI: 10.1386/jwcp.1.3.275_1
  356. Hobbs, Kendall, e Diane Klare. 2016. “Are we there yet? A longitudinal look at e-books through students’ eyes.” Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 28 (1): 9-24. DOI: 10.1080/1941126X.2016.1130451
  357. Hobbs, Renee. 2010. “Digital and Media Literacy: A Plan of Action”. A White Paper on the Digital and Media Literacy Recommendations of the Knight Commission on the Information Needs of Communities in a Democracy. Washington DC: The Aspen Institute.
  358. Hobbs, Renee. 2017. Create to learn: Introduction to digital literacy. New York, NY: Wiley.
  359. Hobbs, Renee. 2018. “Freedom to choose: An existential crisis.” Media Education Lab, 10 marzo, 2018.
  360. Hoffman, Jessica, e Kathleen Paciga. 2014. “Click, Swipe, and Read: Sharing e-Books with Toddlers and Preschoolers.” Early Childhood Education Journal, 42 (6): 379-388. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-013-0622-5
  361. Holsanova, Jana, Holmberg Nils, e Kenneth Holmqvist. 2009. "Reading information graphics: The role of spatial contiguity and dual attentional guidance." Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23 (9): 1215-1226. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1525
  362. Holt, Maurice. 2002. “It’s time to start the slow school movement”. Phi Delta Kappan, 84 (4): 264-271.
  363. Holzinger, Andreas, Baernthaler Markus, Pammer Walter, Katz Herman, Bjelic-Radisic Vesna, e Martina Ziefle. 2011. “Investigating paper vs. screen in real-life hospital workflows: performance contradicts perceived superiority of paper in the user experience.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69 (9): 563-570. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2011.05.002
  364. Honoré, Carl. 2004. In Praise of Slowness: How a Worldwide Movement Is Challenging the Cult of Speed. New York: HarperCollins.
  365. Horning, Alice. 2011. “Where to put the manicules: A theory of expert reading.” Across the Disciplines, 8 (2): 1-18.
  366. Horning, Alice S. 2012. Reading, Writing, and Digitizing: Understanding Literacy in the Electronic Age. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars.
  367. Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi, e John Hutton. 2018. “Brain connectivity in children is increased by the time they spend reading books and decreased by the length of exposure to screen-based media.” Acta Paediatrica, 107 (4): 685-693. DOI: 10.1111/apa.14176
  368. Hoel, Trude Hoel, e Elise S. Tønnessen. 2019. “Organizing shared digital reading in groups: Optimizing the affordances of text and medium.” AERA Open, 5 (4): 1-144. DOI: 10.1177/2332858419883822
  369. Hou, Jinghui, Wu Yijie, e Erin Harrell. 2017. “Reading on Paper and Screen among Senior Adults: Cognitive Map and Technophobia.” Frontiers In Psychology, 8: 2225. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02225
  370. Howard, Jonathan. 2019. Cognitive errors and diagnostic mistake. A Case-Based Guide to Critical Thinking in Medicine. Springer New York, NY: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-93224-8
  371. Howard-Jones, Paul A. 2014. “Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15 (12): 817-824. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3817
  372. Hruby, George G., Goswami Usha, Frederiksen Carl H., e Charles A. Perfetti. 2011. “Neuroscience and Reading: A Review for Reading Education Researchers.” Reading Research Quarterly, 46 (2): 156-172.
  373. Hsiao, Chun-Hua, Tang Kai-Yu, e Chien-Hung Lin. 2015. “Exploring college students’ intention to adopt e-textbooks: A modified technology acceptance model.” Libri, 65 (2): 119-128. DOI: 10.1515/libri-2014-0155
  374. Hughes, Tom. 2013. “Understanding the impact of an iPad on the reading experience of struggling adolescent readers.” PhD diss., University of Birmingham.
  375. Hurley, Susan. 2008. “The shared circuits model (SCM): How control, mirroring, and simulation can enable imitation, deliberation, and mindreading.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31: 1-58. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X07003123
  376. Hutton, John S., Horowitz-Kraus Tzipi, Mendelsohn Alan L., DeWitt Tom, e Scott K. Holland. 2015. “Home reading environment and brain activation in preschool children listening to stories.” Pediatrics, 136 (3): 466-478. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-0359
  377. Hyman, Jack A., Moser Mary T., e Laura N. Segala. 2014. “Electronic reading and digital library technologies: Understanding learner expectation and usage intent for mobile learning.” Educational Technology Research and Development, 62 (1): 35-52. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-013-9330-5
  378. Im, Soo-Hyun, Varma Keisha, e Sashank Varma. 2017. “Extending the seductive allure of neuroscience explanations effect to popular articles about educational topics.” British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87 (4): 518-534. DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12162
  379. Iotti, Lisa. 2020. 8 secondi Viaggio nell’era della distrazione. Milano: Il Saggiatore.
  380. ISTAT. 2019. La produzione e lettura di libri in Italia 2018. Roma: Istituto nazionale di statistica.
  381. ISTAT. 2021. La produzione e lettura di libri in Italia 2019. Roma: Istituto nazionale di statistica.
  382. Jabr, Ferris. 2013. “The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens.” Scientific American, 11 aprile, 2013.
  383. Jackson, Maggie. 2008. Distracted: The erosion of attention and the coming Dark Age. Amherst, N.Y: Prometheus Books.
  384. Jackson, Maggie. 2018. Distracted: reclaiming our focus in a world of lost attention. New York: Prometheus Books. Kindle edition.
  385. Jackson, Shelley. 1995. Patchwork Girl. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems Inc.
  386. Jacobsen, Wade, e Renata Forste. 2011. “The Wired Generation: Academic and Social Outcomes of Electronic Media Use Among University Students.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14 (5): 275-280. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2010.0135
  387. Jamali, Hamid R., Nicholas David, e Ian Rowlands. 2009. “Scholarly e-books: The views of 16,000 academics: Results from the JISC National E-Book Observatory.” Aslib Proceedings, 61: 33-47. DOI: 10.1108/00012530910932276
  388. James, Karin H., e Laura Engelhardt. 2012. “The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children.” Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 1 (1): 32-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.tine.2012.08.001
  389. James, Ryan, e Leon de Kock. 2013. “Deepening the ‘Shallows’: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age, Revisited.” Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa, 25 (1): 4-19. DOI: 10.1080/1013929X.2013.795744
  390. Jasinski, James. 2001. Rhetoric and Society: Sourcebook on Rhetoric: Key Concepts in Contemporary Rhetorical Studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
  391. Jenkins, Henry. 2007. Cultura Convergente. Milano: Apogeo.
  392. Jenkins, Henry. 2010. Culture partecipative e competenze digitali. Media education per il XXI secolo. Milano: Guerini e Associati.
  393. Jenkins, Henry, Ford Sam, e Joshua Green. 2013. Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture. NY: New York University Press.
  394. Jenkins, Henry. 2010. “Multitasking and Continuous Partial Attention: An Interview with Linda Stone (Part One).” Confessions of an Aca-Fan, 19 novembre, 2010.
  395. Jeong, Hanho. 2012. “A comparison of the influence of electronic books and paper books on reading comprehension, eye fatigue, and perception.” The Electronic Library, 30 (3): 390-408. DOI: 10.1108/02640471211241663
  396. Jeong, Se-Hoon, Cho Hyunyi, e Yoori Hwang. 2012. “Media literacy interventions: A meta-analytic review.” Journal of Communication, 62 (3): 454-472. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01643.x
  397. Jeong, Se-Hoon, e Yoori Hwang. 2016. “Media multitasking effects on cognitive vs. attitudinal outcomes: a meta-analysis.” Human Communication Research, 42 (4): 599-618. DOI: 10.1111/hcre.12089
  398. Jewitt, Carey. 2008. “Multimodality and literacy in school classrooms.” Review of Research in Education, 32: 241-267. DOI: 10.3102/0091732X07310586
  399. Jewitt, Carey, e Gunther Kress, a cura di. 2003. Multimodal literacy. New York: Peter Lang.
  400. Johnson, Tristan E., Archibald Thomas N., e Gershon Tenenbaum. 2010. “Individual and team annotation effects on students’ reading comprehension, critical thinking, and meta-cognitive skills.” Computers in Human Behavior, 26 (6): 1496-507. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.014
  401. Jones, Rodney H., e Christoph A. Hafner. 2012. Understanding Digital Literacies: A Practical Introduction. New York: Routledge.
  402. Joo, Sung J., White Alex L., Strodtman Douglas J., e Jason D. Yeatman. 2018. “Optimizing text for an individual's visual system: The contribution of visual crowding to reading difficulties.” Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 103: 291-301. DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2018.03.013
  403. Joyce, Michael. 1987. Afternoon: a story. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems Inc.
  404. Judd, Terry, e Gregor Kennedy. 2011. “Measurement and evidence of computer-based task switching and multitasking by ‘Net Generation’ students.” Computers & Education, 56 (3): 625-631. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.004
  405. Junco, Reynol, e Shelia R. Cotten. 2012. “No A 4 U: the relationship between multitasking and academic performance.” Computers & Education, 59 (2): 505-514. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.023
  406. Justice, Laura M., e Ezell, Helen K. 2001. “Written language awareness in preschool children from low-income households: A descriptive analysis.” Communication Disorders Quarterly, 22 (3): 123-134. DOI: 10.1177/152574010102200302
  407. Kagohara, Debora M., van der Meer Larah, Ramdoss Sathiyaprakash, O’Reilly Mark F., Lancioni Giulio E., Davis Tonya N., … Jeff Sigafoos. 2013. “Using iPods® and iPads® in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities: A systematic review.” Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34 (1): 147-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.07.027
  408. Kahneman, Daniel. 2012. Pensieri lenti e veloci. Milano: Mondadori.
  409. Kalyuga, Slava. 2005. “Prior Knowledge Principle in Multimedia Learning”. In The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning, a cura di Richard E. Mayer, 325-337. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  410. Kalyuga, Slava, Ayres Paul, Chandler Paul, e John Sweller. 2003. “The Expertise Reversal Effect.” Educational Psychologist, 38 (1): 23-31. DOI: 10.1207/S15326985EP3801_4
  411. Kalyuga, Slava, e Alexander Renkl. 2010. “Expertise reversal effect and its instructional implications: Introduction to the special issue.” Instructional Science, 38 (3): 209-215. DOI: 10.1007/s11251-009-9102-0
  412. Kamil, Michael L., e Helen K. Chou. 2009. “Comprehension and computer technology: Past results, current knowledge, and future promises”. In Handbook of research on reading comprehension, a cura di Susan E. Israel, e Gerald G. Duffy, 289-304. New York: Routledge.
  413. Kammerer, Yvonne, Kalbfell Eva, e Peter Gerjets. 2016. “Is this information source commercially biased? How contradictions between web pages stimulate the consideration of source information.” Discourse Processes, 53 (5-6): 430-456. DOI: 10.1080/0163853X.2016.1169968
  414. Kaspersky Lab. 2015. The rise and impact of Digital Amnesia: Why we need to protect what we no longer remember.
  415. Katz, Helen. 2010. The Media Handbook: A Complete Guide to Advertising Media Selection, Planning, Research, and Buying. London: Taylor & Francis.
  416. Kaufman, Geoff, e Mary Flanagan. 2016. “High-low split: Divergent cognitive construal levels triggered by digital and non-digital platforms.” Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, San Jose, San Jose Convention Center, May 7-12 2016. New York: The Association for Computing Machinery. DOI: 10.1145/2858036.2858550
  417. Kay, Alan, e Adele Goldberg. 1977. “Personal Dynamic Media.” Computer, 10 (3): 31-41. DOI: 10.1109/C-M.1977.217672
  418. Keller, Daniel. 2014. Chasing Literacy: Reading and Writing in an Age of Acceleration. Logan: Utah State University Press.
  419. Kelly, Kelly. 2010. “Il pensiero fluido.” Internazionale, 29 gennaio, 2010.
  420. Kelly, Kelly. 2011. “What Books Will Become.” The Technium, 15 aprile, 2011.
  421. Kenner, Charmian. 2004. Becoming biliterate: Young children learning different writing systems. Stoke-on-Trent, UK: Trentham.
  422. Kierkegaard, Sören. 1976. Aut-aut: estetica ed etica nella formazione della personalità. Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore.
  423. Kiili, Carita, Leu, Donald J., Marttunen, Miika, Hautala, Jarkko, e Paavo H. T. Leppänen. 2018. “Exploring early adolescents’ evaluation of academic and commercial online resources related to health.” Reading and Writing, 31: 533-557. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-017-9797-2
  424. Kiili, Carita, Coiro, Julie, e Eija Räikkönen. 2019. “Students’ evaluation of information during online inquiry: Working individually or working in pairs.” Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 42 (3): 167-183.
  425. Kim, Ji Eun, e Jim Anderson. 2008. “Mother-child shared reading with print and digital texts.” Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 8 (2): 213-245. DOI: 10.1177/1468798408091855
  426. Kim, Jackie H.-Y., e Hye-Yoon Jung. 2010. “South Korean digital textbook project.” Computers in the Schools, 27 (3-4): 247-265. DOI: 10.1080/07380569.2010.523887
  427. Kingsley, Tara L. 2011. “Integrating new literacy instruction to support online reading comprehension: An examination of online literacy performance in 5th grade classrooms.” PhD diss., Ball State University.
  428. Kingsley, Tara L., Cassady Jerrell C., e Susan M. Tancock. 2015. “Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms.” Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts, 54 (2).
  429. Kintsch, Walter. 1998. Comprehension: a paradigm for cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  430. Kintsch, Walter, e Teun A. van Dijk. 1978. “Toward a model of text comprehension and production.” Psychological Review, 85 (5): 363-394. DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.85.5.363
  431. Kintsch, Walter, e Douglas Vipond. 1979. “Reading comprehension and readability in educational practice and psychological theory”. In Perspectives on memory research, a cura di Lars-Göran Nilsson L-G. Nilsson, 329-365. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  432. Kirschner, Paul A., e Aryn C. Karpinski. 2010. “Facebook and academic performance.” Computers in Human Behavior, 26 (6): 1237-1245. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.024
  433. Kirschner, Paul A., Sweller John, e Richard E. Clark. 2006. “Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching.” Educational Psychologist, 41 (2): 75-86. DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1
  434. Klop, Daleen, Marais, Laurette, Msindwana Amanda, e Febe De Wet. 2018. “Learning new words from an interactive electronic storybook intervention.” South African Journal of Communication Disorders, 65 (1): e1–e8. DOI: 10.4102/sajcd.v65i1.601
  435. Knobe, Joshua, Prasada Sandeep, e George E. Newman. 2013. “Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.” Cognition, 127 (2): 242-257. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.01.005
  436. Knoop-van Campen, Carolien A., Segers Eliane, e Ludo Verhoeven. 2018. “The modality and redundancy effects in multimedia learning in children with dyslexia.” Dyslexia, 24: 140-155. DOI: 10.1002/dys.1585
  437. Koepnick, Lutz. 2016. “Concepts of Reading in the Digital Era.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190201098.013.2
  438. Kohnen, Angela M., Mertens Gillian E., e Shelby M. Boehm. 2020. “Can middle schoolers learn to read the web like experts? Possibilities and limits of a strategy-based intervention.” Journal of Media Literacy Education, 12 (2): 64-79. DOI: 10.23860/JMLE-2020-12-2-6
  439. Kong, Yiren, Seo Young S., e Ling Zhai. 2018. Comparison of reading performance on screen and on paper: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 123: 138-149. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.005
  440. Konnikova, Maria. 2014. “Being a better online reader.” The New Yorker, 14 luglio, 2014.
  441. Korat, Ofra. 2010. “Reading electronic books as a support for vocabulary, story comprehension and word reading in kindergarten and first grade.” Computers & Education, 55 (1): 24-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.11.014
  442. Korat, Ofra, Graister, Tzlil, e Carmit Altman. 2019. “Contribution of reading an e-book with a dictionary to word learning: Comparison between kindergarteners with and without SLI.” Journal of Communication Disorders, 79: 90-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2019.03.004
  443. Korat, Ofra, Kozlov-Peretz Olla, e Ora Segal-Drori. 2017. “Repeated e-book reading and its contribution to learning new words among kindergartners.” Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5 (7): 60-72. DOI: 10.11114/jets.v5i7.2498
  444. Korat, Ofra, Levin Iris, Atishkin Shifra, e Merav Turgeman. 2014. “E-book as facilitator of vocabulary acquisition: Support of adults, dynamic dictionary and static dictionary.” Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 27 (4): 613-629. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-013-9474-z
  445. Korat, Ofra, e Tal Or. 2010. “How New Technology Influences Parent-child Inter- action: The Case of e-book Reading.” First Language, 30 (2): 139-154. DOI: 10.1177/0142723709359242
  446. Korat, Ofra, e Daphna Shneor. 2019. “Can e-books support low SES parental mediation to enrich children’s vocabulary?” First Language, 39 (3): 344-364. DOI: 10.1177/0142723718822443
  447. Kovac, Miha, e Adriaan Van der Weel. 2018. “Reading in a post-textual era.” First Monday, 23 (10). DOI: 10.5210/fm.v23i10.9416
  448. Kovac, Miha, e Adriaan Van der Weel. 2020. “Paper versus screen reading: what difference does it make?”. In Paper and Digital. Current research into the effectiveness of learning materials, a cura di Åsfrid Hegdal, 9-12. Geneve: International Publishers Association.
  449. Kozyreva, Anastasia, Lewandowsky Stephan, e Ralph Hertwig. 2020. “Citizens versus the Internet: Confronting digital challenges with cognitive tools.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 21 (3): 103-156. DOI: 10.1177/1529100620946707
  450. Kraushaar, James M., e David C. Novak. 2010. “Examining the affects of student multitasking with laptops during the lecture.” Journal of Information Systems Education, 21 (2): 241-251.
  451. Krcmar, Marina, e Drew P. Cingel. 2014. “Parent-Child Joint Reading in Traditional and Electronic Formats.” Media Psychology, 17 (3): 262-28. DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2013.840243
  452. Kress, Gunther R. 2003. Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.
  453. Kress, Gunther R. 2010. Multimodality. A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
  454. Kretzschmar, Franziska, Pleimling Dominique, Hosemann Jana, Füssel Stephan, Bornkessel-Schlesewsky Ina, e Matthias Schlesewsky. 2013. “Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: Concurrent EEG-eye tracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.” PLoS ONE, 8 (2): 1-11. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056178
  455. Kristeva, Julia. 1969. Sémiotikè, recherches pour une sémanalyse. Paris: Seuil.
  456. Kucan, Linda, e Isabel L. Beck. 1997. “Thinking aloud and reading comprehension research: Inquiry, instruction, and social interaction.” Review of Educational Research, 67 (3): 271-299. DOI: 10.2307/1170566
  457. Kucirkova, Natalia. 2018. How and Why to Read and Create Children’s Digital Books: A Guide for Primary Practitioners. London, UK: UCL Press.
  458. Kucirkova, Natalia. 2019. “Children’s Reading with Digital Books: Past Moving Quickly to the Future.” Child Development Perspectives, 13 (4): 208-14. DOI: 10.1111/cdep.12339
  459. Kucirkova, Natalia, e Karen Littleton. 2016. “The digital reading habits of children: A national survey of parents’ perceptions of and practices in relation to children’s reading for pleasure with print and digital books.” Book Trust.
  460. Kucirkova, Natalia, e Barry Zuckerman. 2017. “A guiding framework for considering touchscreens in children under two.” International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 12: 46-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcci.2017.03.001
  461. Kuiper, Els, e Monique Volman. 2008. “The web as a source of information for K-12 education”. In Handbook of Research on New Literacies, a cura di Julie Coiro, Michele Knobel, Colin Lankshear, e Donald J. Leu, 267-296. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  462. Kuiper, Els, Volman Monique, e Jan Terwel. 2008. “Integrating critical web skills and content knowledge: Development and evaluation of a 5th grade educational program.” Computers in Human Behavior, 24 (3): 666-692. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2007.01.022
  463. Kundera, Milan. 1995. La lentezza. Milano: Adelphi.
  464. Kurata, Keiko, Ishita Emi, Miyata Yosuke, e Yukiko Minami. 2017. “Print or digital? Reading behavior and preferences in Japan.” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68 (4): 884-894. DOI: 10.1002/asi.23712
  465. Kurniawan, Sri, e Gerard Conroy. 2006. “Comparing comprehension speed and accuracy of online information in students with and without dyslexia.” In Advances in Universal Web Design and Evaluation: Research, Trends and Opportunities, a cura di Sri Kurniawan, e Panayiotis Zaphiris, 257-270. Hershey: Idea Group publishing. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-096-7.ch011
  466. Kuster, Sanne M., Van Weerdenburg Marjolijn, Gompel Marjolein, e Anna M. Bosman. 2018. “Dyslexie font does not benefit reading in children with or without dyslexia.” Annuals of Dyslexia, 68: 25-42. DOI: 10.1007/s11881-017-0154-6
  467. Kweldju, Siusana. 2015. “Neurobiology research findings: how the brain works during reading.” PASAA: Journal of Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand, 50 (2): 125-142. DOI: 10.17977/um046v3i2p1-9
  468. Kymes, Angel. 2005. “Teaching online comprehension strategies using Think Alouds.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48 (6): 492-500. DOI: 10.1598/JAAL.48.6.4
  469. Labbo, Linda D., e Melanie R. Kuhn. 2000. “Weaving chains of affect and cognition: A young child’s understanding of CD-ROM talking books.” Journal of Literacy Research, 32: 187-210. DOI: 10.1080/10862960009548073
  470. Lacy, Meagan, a cura di. 2014. The Slow Book Revolution: Creating a New Culture of Reading on College Campuses and Beyond. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
  471. Lakoff, George. 1993. “The contemporary theory of metaphor.” In Metaphor and thought, a cura di Andrew Ortony, 202-251. Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
  472. Lakoff, George, e Mark Johnson. 2003. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  473. Landoni, Monica. 2003. “Electronic Books”. In International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, a cura di John Feather, e Paul Sturges, 168-71. London: Routledge.
  474. Landow, George P. 1991. Hypertext. The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore-Maryland: John Hopkins University Press.
  475. Landriscina, Franco. 2007. “Carico cognitivo e impiego della tecnologia per apprendere”. In Tecnologia, scuola, processi cognitivi. Per una ecologia dell’apprendere, a cura di Antonio Calvani, 55-78. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  476. Laneve, Cosimo. 2006. “Editoriale”. Quaderni di didattica della scrittura, 5 (1): 21-22. DOI: 10.7369/71755
  477. Lang, James M. 2016. Small teaching: Everyday lessons from the science of learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  478. Lanham, Richard A. 2006. The economics of attention: Style and substance in the age of information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  479. Lankshear, Colin, e Michele Knobel. 2006. New literacies. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
  480. Lapp, Diane, Fisher Douglas, e Maria Grant. 2008. “‘You can read this text - I’ll show you how’: interactive comprehension instruction.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51 (5): 372-383. DOI: 10.1598/JAAL.51.5.1
  481. Larkin, Michael, e Donnet Flash. 2017. “Building Bridges to Critical Reading in a Digital Context.” BerkeleyWriting, 20 maggio, 2017.
  482. Larson, Joanne, e Jackie Marsh. 2005. Making literacy real: Theories and practices for learning and teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: 10.4135/9781446211953
  483. Latini, Natalia, Bråten Ivar, Anmarkrud Øistein, e Ladislao Salmerón. 2019. “Investigating effects of reading medium and reading purpose on behavioral engagement and textual integration in a multiple text context.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 59: Article 101797. DOI: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.101797
  484. Latini, Natalia, Bråten Ivar, Ladislao Salmerón. 2020. “Does reading medium affect processing and integration of textual and pictorial information? A multimedia eye tracking study.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 62: Article 101870. DOI: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101870
  485. Lauricella, Alexis R., Barr Rachel, e Sandra L. Calvert. 2014. “Parent-child interactions during traditional and computer storybook reading for children's comprehension: Implications for electronic storybook design.” International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 2 (1): 17-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcci.2014.07.001
  486. Lauterman, Tirza, e Rakefet Ackerman. 2014. “Overcoming screen inferiority in learning and calibration.” Computers in Human Behavior, 35: 455-463. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.02.046
  487. Lazer, David M., Baum Matthew A., Benkler Yochai, Berinsky Adam J., Greenhill Kelly M., Menczer Filippo, e David Rothschild. 2018. The science of fake news. Science, 359 (6380): 1094-1096. DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2998
  488. Lee, Sung Hee, e Shu-Fei Tsai. 2017. “Experimental intervention research on students with specific poor comprehension: a systematic review of treatment outcomes.” Reading and Writing, 30 (4): 917-943. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-016-9697-x
  489. Leeuw, Renske. 2010. “Special font for dyslexia?.” Master’s thesis, University of Twente.
  490. Lefever-Davis, Shirley, e Cathy Pearman. 2005. “Early readers and electronic texts: CD-ROM storybook features that influence reading behaviors.” Reading Teacher, 58 (5): 446-454. DOI: 10.1598/RT.58.5.4
  491. Legge 6 agosto 2008, n. 133. Conversione in legge, con modificazioni, del decreto-legge 25 giugno 2008, n. 112, recante disposizioni urgenti per lo sviluppo economico, la semplificazione, la competitività, la stabilizzazione della finanza pubblica e la perequazione tributaria.
  492. Legrenzi, Paolo, e Carlo Umiltà. 2009. Neuromania. Il cervello non spiega chi siamo. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  493. Legrenzi, Paolo, e Carlo Umiltà. 2016. Una cosa alla volta. Le regole dell’attenzione. Bologna: Il Mulino. Kindle edition.
  494. L’Espresso. 2017. “Scusate se il futuro è di carta. L’avevano data per morta. Invece sta rinascendo. Perché nell’era di Internet ci aiuta a uscire dal caos.”, 26 febbraio, 2017.
  495. Leu, Donald J., Coiro Julie, Castek Jill, Hartman Douglas K., Henry Laurie A., e David Reinking. 2008. “Research on instruction and assessment in the new literacies of online reading comprehension”. In Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices, a cura di Block Cathy C., e Sheri R. Parris, 321-346. New York, NY: Guilford.
  496. Leu, Donald J., Forzani Elena, Burlingame Cheryl, Kulikowich Jonna, Sedransk Nell, Coiro Julie, e Clint Kennedy. 2013. “The new literacies of online research and comprehension: Assessing and preparing students for the 21st century with common core state standards”. In Reading instruction in the age of common core standards, a cura di Susan B. Neuman, e Linda B. Gambrell, 219-236. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  497. Leu, Donald, Forzani Elena, Rhoads Chris, Maykel Cheryl, Kennedy Clint, e Nicole Timbrell. 2014. “The new literacies of online research and comprehension: rethinking the reading achievement gap.” Reading Research Quarterly, 50 (1): 37-59. DOI: 10.1002/rrq.85
  498. Leu, Donald J., Kiili Carita, e Elena Forzani. 2016. “Individual differences in the new literacies of online research and comprehension”. In Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading: Reader, Text, and Context, a cura di Peter Afflerbach, 259-272. New York: Routledge.
  499. Leu, Don, Kinzer Charles, Coiro Julie, Castek Jill, e Laurie Henry. 2017. “New Literacies: A Dual-Level Theory of the Changing Nature of Literacy, Instruction, and Assessment.” Journal of Education, 197 (2): 1-18. DOI: 10.1177/002205741719700202
  500. Leu, Donald J. e David Reinking. 2010. Final report: Developing Internet comprehension strategies among adolescent students at risk to become dropouts. U. S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences Research Grant.
  501. Leu, Donald J., Zawilinski Lisa, Castek Jill, Banerjee Manju, Housand Brian C., Liu Yingjie, e Maureen O. Neil. 2007. “What is new about the new literacies of online reading comprehension?”. In Secondary school reading and writing: What research reveals for classroom practices, a cura di Allen Berger, Leslie Rush, e Jonathan Eakle, 37-68. Chicago, IL: NCTE/NCRLL.
  502. Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1962. La Pensée sauvage. Paris: Plon.
  503. Levitin, Daniel J. 2014. The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload. New York: Dutton.
  504. Levitin, Daniel J. 2015. “Why the modern world is bad for your brain.” The Guardian, 18 gennaio, 2015.
  505. Lévy, Pierre. 1996. L’intelligenza collettiva. Per un’antropologia del cyberspazio. Milano: Feltrinelli.
  506. Lewis, Cynthia, e Bettina Fabos. 2005. “Instant messaging, literacies, and social identities.” Reading Research Quarterly, 40 (4): 470-501.
  507. Li, Liang-Yi, Fan Cheng-Yu, Huang Dong-Wei, e Gwo-Dong Chen. 2014. “The Effects of the E-Book System with the Reading Guidance and the Annotation Map on the Reading Performance of College Students.” Educational Technology & Society, 17 (1): 320-331.
  508. Li, Liang-Yi, Chen Gwo-Dong, e Sheng-Jie. 2013. “Construction of cognitive maps to improve e-book reading and navigation.” Computers & Education, 60 (1): 32-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.07.010
  509. Li, Sandy C., Pow Jacky W. C., e Wai Chun Cheung. 2015. “A delineation of the cognitive processes manifested in a social annotation environment.” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31 (1): 1-13. DOI: 10.1111/jcal.12073
  510. Liao, Yuen-Kuang. 1999. “Effects of hypermedia on students’ achievement: A meta-analysis.” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8 (3): 255-277.
  511. Licastro, Amanda. 2019. “The past, present, and future of social annotation”. In Digital reading and writing in composition studies, a cura di Mary R. Lamb, e Jennifer M. Parrott, 87-104. New York, NY: Routledge.
  512. Lim, Fei V. 2018. “Developing a systemic functional approach to teach multimodal literacy.” Functional Linguistics, 5 (13): 1-17. DOI: 10.1186/s40554-018-0066-8
  513. Lim, Fei V., e Weimin Toh. 2020. “How to teach digital reading?” Journal of Information Literacy, 14 (2): 24-43. DOI: 10.11645/14.2.2701
  514. Lin, Carolyn A., e Tonghoon Kim. 2016. “Predicting user response to sponsored advertising on social media via the technology acceptance model.” Computers in Human Behavior, 64: 710-718. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.07.027
  515. Lin, Lin. 2009. “Breadth-biased versus focused cognitive control in media multitasking behaviors.” PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (37): 15521-15522. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0908642106
  516. Lin, L., Robertson Tip, e Jennifer Lee. 2009. “Reading performances between novices and experts in different media multitasking environments.” Computers in the Schools, 26 (3): 169-186. DOI: 10.1080/07380560903095162
  517. Lingua, Graziano, e Alessandro De Cesaris. 2020. “Immersività distratta. La nuova economia dell’attenzione negli ambienti digitali.” MeTis. Mondi educativi. Temi, indagini, suggestioni, 10 (1): 63-84. DOI: 10.30557/MT00129
  518. Liu, Ziming. 2005. “Reading behavior in the digital environment: Changes in reading behavior over the past ten years.” Journal of Documentation, 61 (6): 700-712. DOI: 10.1108/00220410510632040
  519. Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni Giovanna, Dreier Michael, Chaudron Stephane, e Kat Lagae. 2015. How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: The role of income, education and parental style. London: EU Kids Online, LSE.
  520. Locatelli, Roberta. 2013. “Roberto Casati. Contro il colonialismo digitale.” Doppiozero, 4 giugno, 2013.
  521. Loh, Kep K., e Ryota Kanai. 2016. “How has the internet reshaped human cognition?” Neuroscientist, 22 (5): 506-520. DOI: 10.1177/1073858415595005
  522. López-Escribano, Carmen, Valverde-Montesino Susana, e Verónica García-Ortega. 2021. “The Impact of E-Book Reading on Young Children’s Emergent Literacy Skills: An Analytical Review.” Int. J. Environ. Res. PublicHealth, 18 (12): 6510. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18126510
  523. Lorenzoni, Franco. 2012. “Appello perché bimbi e bimbe fino a 8 anni siano liberi da schermi e computer nella scuola.” La Repubblica, 4 dicembre, 2012.
  524. Lorenz-Spreen, Philipp, Mønsted Bjarke M., Hövel Philipp, e Sune Lehmann. 2019. “Accelerating dynamics of collective attention.” Nature communications, 10 (1): 1759. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09311-w
  525. Lu, Jingyan, e Liping Deng. 2013. “Examining students’ use of online annotation tools in support of argumentative reading.” Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29 (2): 161-171. DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n7p66
  526. Lucas, Rob. 2012. “The critical net critic.” New Left Review, 77: 45-69.
  527. Lumbelli, Lucia. 2009. La comprensione come problema. Il punto di vista cognitivo. Bari: Laterza.
  528. Lumbelli, Lucia. 2012. “Condizioni cognitive di una lettura autonomamente motivate.” Edaforum, 8 (20): 1-8.
  529. Lutz, Christoph, e Christian P. Hoffmann. 2016. “The Dark Side of Online Participation: Exploring Non- and Negative Participation.” Information, Communication & Society, 20 (6): 876-897. DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2017.1293129
  530. Lynch, Clifford A. 1999. “Electrifying the Book.” Library Journal, Netconnect supplement, 124 (17): 3-6.
  531. Lynch, Clifford A. 2001. “The Battle to Define the Future of the Book in the Digital World.” First Monday, 6 (6). DOI: 10.5210/fm.v6i6.864
  532. MacCullagh, Lois, Bosanquet Agnes, e Nicholas A. Badcock. 2017. “University students with dyslexia: A qualitative exploratory study of learning practices, challenges and strategies.” Dyslexia, 23: 3-23. DOI: 10.1002/dys.1544
  533. Macdonald, Kelly, Germine Laura, Anderson Alida, Christodoulou Joanna, e Lauren M. McGrath. 2017. “Dispelling the myth: training in education or neuroscience decreases but does not eliminate beliefs in neuromyths.” Frontiers in Psychology, 8: Article 1314 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01314
  534. Maffei, Lamberto. 2014. L’elogio della lentezza. Bologna: Il Mulino. Kindle edition.
  535. Maffei, Lamberto. 2016. “Breve elogio della ribellione in salsa umanistica.” il manifesto, 3 settembre, 2016.
  536. Maffei, Lamberto. 2018. “Elogio della lentezza - Lectio Magistralis di Lamberto Maffei.” Università di Genova. YouTube video.
  537. Maffei, Lamberto. 2019. “Vedere, guardare, immagini nel tempo.” Intercultura, 94: 15-21.
  538. Mahfouz, Ahmed Y., Joonas Kishwar, Williams Dalain, Jia Ruixin, e Margarita Arevalo. 2017. “A Classic American Department Store's Resurgence to Glory: Using Social Media and Online Advertising Strategies to Raise Revenue.” Southern Journal of Business & Ethics, 9: 180-192.
  539. Mahncke, Henry W., Bronstone Amy, e Michael M. Merzenich. 2006. “Brain Plasticity and Functional Losses in the Aged: Scientific Bases for a Novel Intervention.” Progress in Brain Research, 157: 81-109. DOI: 10.1016/S0079-6123(06)57006-2
  540. Mangen, Anne. 2006. “New narrative pleasures? A cognitive-phenomenological study of the experience of reading digital narrative fictions.” PhD diss., Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
  541. Mangen, Anne. 2008. “Hypertext fiction reading: haptics and immersion.” Journal Of Research In Reading, 31 (4): 404-419. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2008.00380.x
  542. Mangen, Anne. 2011. “Why bother with print? Some reflections on the role of fixity, linearity and structure for sustained reading.” In Reading and Publishing in the Digital Age. The Unbound Book conference, Amsterdam/Den Haag, May 19-21, 2011.
  543. Mangen, Anne, Anda Liss G., Oxborough, Gunn H., e Kolbjørn Brønnick. 2015. “Handwriting versus keyboard writing: Effect on word recall.” Journal of Writing Research, 7 (2): 227-247. DOI: 10.17239/jowr-2015.07.02.1
  544. Mangen, Anne, Hoel Trude, Jernes Margrethe, e Thomas Moser. 2019. “Shared, dialogue-based reading with books vs tablets in early childhood education and care: Protocol for a mixed-methods intervention study.” International Journal of Education Research, 97: 88-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2019.07.002
  545. Mangen, Anne, e Don Kuiken. 2014. “Lost in an iPad: Narrative engagement on paper and tablet.” Scientific Study Of Literature, 4 (2): 150-177. DOI: 10.1075/ssol.4.2.02man
  546. Mangen, Anne, Robinet Pascal, Olivier Gérard, e Jean-Luc Velay. 2014. “Mystery story reading in pocket print book and on Kindle: possible impact on chronological events memory.” 14th Conference of the International Society for the Empirical Study of Literature and Media (IGEL 2014), Turin, Campus Luigi Einaudi, 21-25 july 2014.
  547. Mangen, Anne, e Theresa S. Schilhab. 2012. “An embodied view of reading: Theoretical considerations, empirical findings, and educational”. In Skriv! Les! 1: artikler fra den første nordiske konferansen om skriving, lesing og literacy, a cura di Synnøve Matre, e Atle Skaftun, 285-300. Trondheim: Akademika forlag.
  548. Mangen, Anne, e Adriaan van der Weel. 2016. “The evolution of reading in the age of digitization: an integrative framework for reading research.” Literacy, 50 (3): 116-124. DOI: 10.1111/lit.12086
  549. Mangen, Anne, Walgermo Bente R., e Kolbjørn Brønnick. 2013. “Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screens: effects on reading comprehension.” International Journal of Educational Research, 58: 61-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2012.12.002
  550. Manovich, Lev. 2002. Il linguaggio dei nuovi media. Milano: Edizioni Olivares.
  551. Manovich, Lev. 2007. “Understanding hybrid media”. In Animated paintings, a cura di Betti-Sue HertzHertz, 36-45, San Diego, San Diego Museum of Art.
  552. Marconato, Gianni. 2012. “Internet rendi stupidi … coloro che stupidi già sono.” Blog di Gianni Marconato, 13 gennaio, 2012.
  553. Margolin, Sara J., Driscoll Casey, Toland Michael J., e Jennifer L. Kegler. 2013. “E‐readers, computer screens, or paper: Does reading comprehension change across media platforms?” Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27: 512-519. DOI: 10.1002/acp.2930
  554. Marinetti, Filippo T., Corra Bruno, Settimelli Emilio, Ginna Arnaldo, Balla Giacomo, e Remo Chiti. 1916. “La cinematografia futurista”. L’Italia futurista, 11 settembre, 1916.
  555. Marinus, Eva, Mostard Michelle, Segers Eliane, Schubert Teresa M., Madelaine Alison, e Kevin Wheldall. 2016. “A special font for people with dyslexia: Does it work and, if so, why?” Dyslexia, 22 (3): 233-244. DOI: 10.1002/dys.1527
  556. Marzano, Antonio, e Rosa Vegliante. 2014. “Lo sviluppo delle abilità inferenziali di lettura nella scuola dell’infanzia con l’utilizzo della LIM: Le premesse di una ricerca.” Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies, 10: 341-367. DOI: 10.7358/ecps-2014-010-marz
  557. Marzano, Antonio, Vegliante Rosa, e Iolanda S. Iannotta. 2015. “Apprendimento in digitale e processi cognitivi: problemi aperti e riflessioni da ri-avviare.” Form@re – Open Journal per la Formazione in Rete, 15 (2): 19-34. DOI: 10.13128/formare-17058
  558. Mascheroni, Giovanna, Ponte Cristina, e Ana Jorge, a cura di. 2018. Digital Parenting. The Challenges for Families in the Digital Age. Göteborg: Nordicom.
  559. Matas, Mike. 2011. “A next-generation digital book.” TED video.
  560. Maton, Karl, e Rob Moore. 2000. “Historical amnesia: Victims of fashion and out- breaks of ‘breaks’ in the disciplinary map.” Paper presented at the British Sociological Association Annual Conference, University of York, 17-20 April 2000.
  561. Matsuda, Misa. 2005. “Mobile communication and selective sociality”. In Personal, portable, pedestrian: Mobile phones in Japanese life, a cura di Mizuko Ito, Misa Matsuda, e Daisuke Okabe, 123-142. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  562. May, Kaitlyn E., e Anastasia D. Elder. 2018. “Efficient, helpful, or distracting? A literature review of media multitasking in relation to academic performance.” International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15 (13): 1-17. DOI: 10.1186/s41239-018-0096-z
  563. Mayer, Richard E. 2001. Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  564. Mayer, Richard E., Stull Andrew, DeLeeuw Krista, Almeroth Kevin, Bimber Bruce, Chun Dorothy, Bulger Monica, Campbell Julie, Knight Allan, e Hangjin Zhang. 2009. “Clickers in the classroom: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34: 51-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.04.002
  565. Mayr, Ernst. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
  566. Mazzola, Marco. 2015. “Per una ergonomia della lettura della lettura: fra libro ed E-Book”. In E_Bookzine, a cura di Veronica Dal Buono, 28-41. Ferrara: Media MD.
  567. Mcbride, Jason. 2011. “In the ’60s, Marshall McLuhan was Toronto’s most famous intellectual; now, the world has finally caught up with him.” Toronto Life, 6 luglio, 2011.
  568. McCabe, David P., e Alan D. Castel. 2008. “Seeing is believing: The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning.” Cognition, 107: 343-352. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.07.017
  569. McCarthy, Jacob E., e Sarah J. Swierenga. 2010. “What we know about dyslexia and web accessibility: A research review.” Universal Access in the Information Society, 9 (2): 147-152. DOI: 10.1007/s10209-009-0160-5
  570. McChesney, Robert W. 2013. Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism is Turning the Internet Against Democracy. New York: The New Press.
  571. McConatha, Douglas, Penny Christian, Shugar Jordan, e David Bolton, a cura di. 2013. Mobile pedagogy and perspectives on teaching and learning. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4333-8
  572. McGrew, Sarah. 2020. “Learning to evaluate: An intervention in civic online reasoning.” Computers & Education, 145: 1-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103711
  573. McGrew, Sarah, Breakstone Joel, Ortega Teresa, Smith Mark, e Sam Wineburg. 2018. “Can students evaluate online sources? Learning from assessments of civic online reasoning.” Theory & Research in Social Education, 46 (2): 165-193. DOI: 10.1080/00933104.2017.1416320
  574. McGrew, Sarah, Smith Mark, Breakstone Joel, Ortega Teresa, e Sam Wineburg. 2019. “Improving university students’ web savvy: An intervention study.” British Journal of Educational Psychology, 89 (3): 485-500. DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12279
  575. McKenna, Michael C. 1998. “Electronic texts and the transformation of beginning reading”. In Handbook of literacy and technology: Transformations in a post-typographic world, a cura di David Reinking, Michael C. McKenna, Linda D. Labbo, e Ronald D. Kieffer, 45-59. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  576. McKeown, Regina G., e James L. Gentilucci. 2007. “Think-Aloud Strategy: Meta-Cognitive Development and Monitoring Comprehension in the Middle School Second-Language Classroom.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51 (2): 136-147. DOI: 10.1598/JAAL.51.2.5
  577. McLean, Kristen, e Carl Kulo. 2013. Understanding the children’s book consumer in the digital age. Bowker Market Research.
  578. McLuhan, Marshall. 1962. The Gutenberg Galaxy. The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  579. McLuhan, Marshall. 2008. Gli strumenti del Comunicare. Milano: il Saggiatore.
  580. McNamara, Danielle S. 2017. “Self-Explanation and Reading Strategy Training (SERT) Improves low-knowledge students’ science course performance.” Discourse Processes, 54 (7): 479-492. DOI: 10.1080/0163853X.2015.1101328
  581. McNamara, Danielle S., e Joe Magliano. 2009. “Chapter 9 Toward a Comprehensive Model of Comprehension.” Psychology of Learning and Motivation - Advances in Research and Theory, 51: 297-384. DOI: 10.1016/S0079-7421(09)51009-2
  582. McVay, Jennifer C., e Michael J. Kane. 2012b. Why does working memory capacity predict variation in reading comprehension? On the influence of mind wandering and executive attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141 (2): 302-320. DOI: 10.1037/a0025250
  583. McVee, Mary B., Bailey Nancy M., e Lynn E. Shanahan. 2006. “Literacy teachers and the (artful) deception of technology integration.” Paper presented at the 27th Annual Ethnography in Education Research Forum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 24-25 Febbraio 2006.
  584. Meichenbaum, Donald, e Joan Asnarow, J. 1979. “Cognitive behavior modification and metacognitive development: Implications for the classroom”. In Cognitive behavioral interventions: Theory research and procedures, a cura di Philip C. Kendall, e Steven D. Hollon, 11-35. New York: Academic Press.
  585. Merchant, Guy. 2007. “Writing the future in the digital age.” Literacy, 41 (3): 118e128. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9345.2007.00469.x
  586. Merzenich, Michael. 2008. “Going googly.” On the Brain (blog), 11 agosto, 2008.
  587. Meshi, Dar, Tamir Diana I., e Hauke R. Heekeren. 2015. “The emerging neuroscience of social media.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19 (12): 771-782. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.09.004
  588. Metzger, Miriam J., e Andrew J. Flanagin. 2008. Digital media, youth, and credibility. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
  589. Metzger, Miriam J., Flanagin Andrew J., e Ryan B. Medders. 2010. “Social and heuristic approaches to credibility evaluation online.” Journal of Communication, 60 (3): 413-439. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01488.x
  590. Meyer, Anne, e David H. Rose. 1998. Learning to read in the computer age. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
  591. Meyer, Anne, Rose David H., e David Gordon. 2014. Universal Design of Learning: Theory and Practice. CAST Professional Publishing, Wakefield, MA.
  592. Meyer, Bonnie J. F. 2003. “Text Coherence and Readability.” Topics in Language Disorders, 23: 204-224. DOI: 10.1097/00011363-200307000-00007
  593. Meyer, David E., Evans Jeffrey E., Lauber Erick J., Gmeindl, Leon, Rubinstein Joshua, Junck Larry, e Robert A. Koeppe. 1998. “The role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for executive cognitive processes in task switching.” Poster presented at the meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, April 1998.
  594. Micheletta, Silvia, e Enrico A. Emili. 2013. “Dislessia e tecnologie: quali evidenze di efficacia?” Form@re - Open Journal per la Formazione in Rete, 4 (13): 15-29. DOI: 10.13128/formare-14226
  595. Microsoft Canada. 2015. Microsoft attention spans, Spring 2015.
  596. Miedema, John. 2008. Slow reading. Duluth, Minnesota: Litwin Books.
  597. Mihailidis, Paul, e James N. Cohen. 2013. “Exploring curation as a core competency in digital and media literacy education.” Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 1 (2): Article 2. DOI: 10.5334/2013-02
  598. Mikics, David. 2013. Slow reading in a hurried age. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
  599. Miller, Carolyn R. 1984. “Genre as social action.” Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70 (2): 151-167. DOI: 10.1080/00335638409383686
  600. Miller, Carl, e Jamie Bartlett. 2012. “‘Digital fluency’: Towards young people’s critical use of the Internet.” Journal of Information Literacy, 6 (2): 35-55. DOI: 10.11645/6.2.1714
  601. Miller, Elizabeth B., e Mark Warschauer. 2014. “Young children and e-reading: Research to date and questions for the future.” Learning, Media and Technology, 39 (3): 283-305. DOI: 10.1080/17439884.2013.867868
  602. Miller, Richard E. 2016. “On Digital Reading.” Pedagogy, 16 (1): 153-64. DOI: 10.1215/15314200-3158717
  603. Mills, Kathryn L. 2014. “Effects of Internet use on the adolescent brain: Despite popular claims, experimental evidence remains scarce.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18 (8): 385-387. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2014.04.011
  604. Mitchell, Amy, Stocking Galen, e Katerina E. Matsa. 2016. “Long-Form Reading Shows Signs of Life in our Mobile News World.” Pew Research Center, May 5, 2016.
  605. MIUR, Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca. 2012. Indicazioni nazionali per il curricolo della scuola dell’infanzia e del primo ciclo d’istruzione. Roma: Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca.
  606. MIUR, Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca 2013. Decreto Ministeriale 27 settembre 2013, n. 781. Definizione delle caratteristiche tecniche e tecnologiche dei libri di testo e i tetti di spesa per la scuola primaria, la secondaria di primo grado e la secondaria di secondo grado. Roma: Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca.
  607. Mizrachi, Diane. 2015. “Undergraduates’ academic reading format preferences and behaviors.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41 (3): 301-311. DOI: 10.1016/j.acalib.2015.03.009
  608. Mizrachi, Diane, Salaz Alicia M., Kurbanoglu Serap, Boustany Joumana, and on behalf of the ARFIS Research Group. 2018. “Academic reading format preferences and behaviors among university students worldwide: A comparative survey analysis.” PLoS ONE, 13 (5): e0197444. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197444
  609. Mol, Suzanne E., e Adriana Bus. 2011. “To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood.” Psychological Bulletin, 137: 267-296. DOI: 10.1037/a0021890
  610. Mol, Suzanne E., Bus Adriana G., de Jong Maria T., e Daisy J. H. Smeets. 2008. “Added value of dialogic parent–child book readings: A meta-analysis.” Early Education and Development, 19: 7-26. DOI: 10.1080/10409280701838603
  611. Montuori, Alfonso. 2012. “Reproductive learning”. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Boston, MA: Springer, US. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_811
  612. Moody, Amelia K. 2010. “Using electronic books in the classroom to enhance emergent literacy skills in young children.” Journal of Literacy and Technology, 11 (4): 22-52.
  613. Moonbot Studios. “The Fantastic Flying Books of Mr. Morris Lessmore.”
  614. Moores, Elisabeth, Cassim Rizan, e Joel B. Talcott. 2011. “Adults with dyslexia exhibit large effects of crowding, increased dependence on cues, and detrimental effects of distractors in visual search tasks.” Neuropsychologia, 49: 3881-3890. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.10.005
  615. Moran, Juan, Ferdig Richard E., Pearson David P., Wardrop James, e Robert L. Blomeyer Jr. 2008. “Technology and reading performance in the middle-school grades: A meta-analysis with recommendations for policy and practice.” Journal of Literacy Research, 40 (1): 6-58. DOI: 10.1080/10862960802070483
  616. Moreno, Roxana, e Richard Mayer. 2007. “Interactive multimodal learning environments: Special issue on interactive learning environments: Contemporary issues and trends.” Educational Psychology Review, 19 (3): 309-326. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-007-9047-2
  617. Moretti, Franco. 2000. “Conjectures on World Literature.” New Left Review, 1: 54-68.
  618. Moretti, Franco. 2005. La letteratura vista da lontano. Torino: Einaudi.
  619. Morini, Arianna L. 2017. Leggere in digitale. Nuove pratiche di lettura nel contesto scolastico. Roma: Anicia.
  620. Morozov, Evgeny. 2011. The net delusion: The dark side of Internet freedom. New York: Penguin Books.
  621. Morphy, Paul, e Steve Graham. 2012. “Word processing programs and weaker writers/readers: a meta-analysis of research findings.” Reading and Writing, 25 (3): 641-678. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-010-9292-5
  622. Morris, Janine. 2016a. “A genre-based approach to digital reading. Pedagogy Critical Approaches to Teaching Literature Language Composition and Culture.” Pedagogy, 16 (1): 125-36. DOI: 10.1215/15314200-3158685
  623. Morris, Janine. 2016b. “Contexts of Digital Reading: How Genres Affect Reading Practices.” PhD diss., University of Cincinnati.
  624. Morris, Janine. 2019. “Annotating with Google Docs: Bridging collaborative reading and writing in the composition classroom”. In Digital reading and writing in composition studies, a cura di Mary R. Lamb, e Jennifer M. Parrott, 116-29. New York, NY: Routledge.
  625. Moskowitz, Michael P., e Hans Ringertz. 2018. “It’s Time to Embrace Digital Nutrition.” Medium, 27 novembre, 2018.
  626. Moss, Gemma. 2003. “Putting the text back into practice: junior-age non-fiction as objects of design”. In Multimodal Literacy, a cura di Carey Jewitt, e Gunther Kress, 73-87. New York: Peter Lang.
  627. Moulthrop, Stuart. 1991. Victory Garden. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems Inc.
  628. Mueller, Pam A., e Daniel M. Oppenheimer. 2014. “The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard.” Psychological Science, 25 (6): 1159-1168. DOI: 10.1177/0956797614524581
  629. Muir, Laura, e Graeme Hawes. 2013. “The case for e-book literacy: undergraduate students’ experience with e-books for course work.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39: 260-274. DOI: 10.1016/j.acalib.2013.01.002
  630. Mullis, Ina V. S., Martin Michael O., Foy Pierre, e Martin Hooper. 2017a. PIRLS 2016 International Results in Reading. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.
  631. Mullis, Ina V. S., Martin Michael O., Foy Pierre, e Martin Hooper. 2017b. ePIRLS 2016 International Results in Online Informational Reading. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.
  632. Munzer, Tiffany G., Miller Alison L., Weeks Heidi M., Kaciroti Niko, e Jenny Radesky. 2019. “Differences in parent-toddler interactions with electronic versus print books.” Pediatrics, 143 (4): e20182012. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2018-2012
  633. Muter, Paul, e Paula Maurutto. 1991. “Reading and skimming from computer screens and books: the paperless office revisited?” Behaviour and Information Technology, 10 (4): 257-266. DOI: 10.1080/01449299108924288
  634. Nardi, Andrea. 2013. “Ibridazioni mediali. Conversazioni tra Walter Benjamin e Marshall McLuhan.” SenzaCornice, 7: 1-8.
  635. Nardi, Andrea. 2014. “Il testo musicale”. In Digital Writing. Nel laboratorio della scrittura, a cura di Alessandra Anichini, 137-210. Milano: Apogeo Education.
  636. Nardi, Andrea. 2015. “Lettura digitale vs lettura tradizionale: implicazioni cognitive e stato della ricerca.” Form@re – Open Journal per la Formazione in Rete, 1 (15): 7-29. DOI: 10.13128/formare-15434
  637. Nardi, Andrea. 2016. “Bambini e lettura digitale: serve ancora il supporto dell’adulto.” Media Education, Studi, ricerche, buone pratiche, 7 (2): 177-196. DOI: 10.36253/me-8758
  638. Nardi, Andrea. 2017. “Leggere e studiare sullo schermo. Dal design del testo digitale alla verifica degli apprendimenti basata sul computer.” Tesi di dottorato, Università degli studi di Firenze.
  639. Nardi, Andrea. 2018. “Progettare un libro di testo digitale tra criticità e opportunità.” Media Education, Studi, ricerche, buone pratiche, 9 (2): 252-274. DOI: 10.36253/me-8813
  640. Naumann, Johannes, e Ladislao Salmerón. 2016. “Does Navigation Always Predict Performance? Effects of Navigation on Digital Reading are Moderated by Comprehension Skills.” The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17 (1). DOI: 10.19173/irrodl.v17i1.2113
  641. NELP. 2008. Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.
  642. Nelson, Brett. 2012. “Do You Read Fast Enough To Be Successful?.” Forbes, 4 giugno, 2012.
  643. Nelson, Ted. 1965. “A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate.” In The New Media Reader, a cura di Noah Wardrip-Fruin, e Nick Montfort, 133-14. Cambridge, Massachussets: The MIT Press.
  644. Nelson, Ted. 1965. “Announcing Ted Nelson's first computer lecture.” Internet Archive, 5 gennaio, 1965.
  645. Neumann, Michelle M., e David L. Neumann. 2014. “Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy.” Early Childhood Education Journal, 42 (4): 231-239. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-013-0608-3
  646. Neumann, Michelle M., e David L. Neumann. 2017. “The use of touch-screen tablets at home and pre-school to foster emergent literacy.” Journal of Early Childhood Literacy. 17 (2): 203-220. DOI: 10.1177/1468798415619773
  647. Newkirk, Thomas. 2011. The Art of Slow Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  648. Newman, Nic, Fletcher Richard, Schulz Anne, Andi Simge, e Rasmus K. Nielsen, a cura di.  Reuters Digital News Report 2020. University of Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
  649. Newton, Philip M. 2015. “The learning styles myth is thriving in higher education.” Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 1908. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01908
  650. New York Times. 2009. “Does the brain like e-books?.” 14 ottobre, 2009.
  651. Nicholas, David, Huntington Paul, Jamali Hamid R., Rowlands Ian, Dobrowolski Tom, e Carol Tenopir. 2008. “Viewing and reading behaviour in a virtual environment.” Aslib Proceedings, 60 (3): 186-198. DOI: 10.1108/00012530810879079
  652. Nielsen, Jakob. 1997. “How Users Read on the Web.” Nielsen Norman Group, 30 settembre, 1997.
  653. Nielsen, Jakob. 2006. “F-Shaped Pattern For Reading Web Content (original study).” Nielsen Norman Group, 16 aprile, 2006.
  654. Nielsen, Jakob. 2008. “How Little Do Users Read?.” Nielsen Norman Group, 5 maggio, 2008.
  655. Nielsen, Jakob. 2011. “How Long Do Users Stay on Web Pages?” Nielsen Norman Group, 11 settembre 2011.
  656. Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1994. Aurora. Pensieri sui pregiudizi morali. Milano: Adelphi.
  657. Norman, Donald A. 1990. La Caffettiera del masochista. Psicopatologia degli oggetti quotidiani. Firenze: Giunti.
  658. Norman, Donald A. 1998. The Design of Everyday Things. New York: The MIT Press.
  659. Norman, Donald A. 2004. Emotional design. Perché amiamo (o odiamo), gli oggetti della vita quotidiana. Milano: Apogeo.
  660. Norman, Donald A. 2011. Vivere con la complessità. Milano: Pearson.
  661. Norman, Elisabeth, e Bjarte Furnes. 2016. “The relationship between metacognitive experiences and learning: Is there a difference between digital and non-digital study media?” Computers in Human Behavior, 54: 301-309. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.043
  662. Noyes, Jan M., e Kate Garland. 2008. “Computer-versus paper-based tasks: Are they equivalent?” Ergonomics, 51 (9): 1352-1375. DOI: 10.1080/00140130802170387
  663. Nunberg, Geoffrey. 1993. “The Places of Books in the Age of Electronic Reproduction.” Representations, 24: 13-37. DOI: 10.2307/2928616
  664. Oceanhouse Media. “Alice for the iPad.”
  665. OECD. 2011. PISA 2009 Results: Students on Line: Digital Technologies and Performance (Volume VI). Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/9789264112995-en
  666. OECD. 2015. Students, Computers and Learning: Making the Connection. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/9789264239555-en
  667. OECD. 2019a. PISA 2018 Assessment and Analytical Frameowork. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/b25efab8-en
  668. OECD. 2019b. PISA 2018 Results. Combined Executive Summaries Volume I, II & III. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  669. OECD. 2019c. Skills Matter. Additional results from survey of adult skills. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/1f029d8f-en
  670. OECD. 2021. 21st-Century Readers: Developing Literacy Skills in a Digital World. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/a83d84cb-en
  671. O’Hara, Kenton, e Abigail Sellen. 1997. “A Comparison of Reading Paper and On-Line Documents.” Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in computing systems, Atlanta, GA, 22-27 March 1997, 335-342. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. DOI: 10.1145/258549.258787
  672. Okkinga, Mariska, van Steensel Roel, van Gelderen Amos J. S:, van Schooten Erik, Sleegers Peter J. C., e Lidia R. Arends. 2018. “Effectiveness of reading-strategy interventions in whole classrooms: a meta-analysis.” Educational Psychology Review, 30 (4): 1215-1239. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-018-9445-7
  673. Ong, Walter J. 1982. Orality and literacy. London: Methuen.
  674. Ophir, Eyal, Nass Clifford, e Anthony D. Wagner. 2009. “Cognitive control in media multitaskers.” PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (37): 15583-15587. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0903620106
  675. Ophir, Yaakov, Tikochinski Refael, e Hananel Rosenberg. 2020. “Science Has Not Proven That Screen Use Impacts Children's Brain Development.” JAMA pediatrics, 174 (8): 805-807. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0635
  676. Oppenheimer, Todd. 1997. “The Computer Delusion.” The Atlantic Monthly, 280 (1): 45-62.
  677. Orben, Amy, e Andrew K. Przybylski. 2019. “The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use.” Nature Human Behaviour, 3 (2): 173-182. DOI: 10.1038/s41562-018-0506-1
  678. Ørevik, Sigrid. 2015. “From book to screen: Changing genre patterns and communicative purposes.” Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 10 (2): 102-120. DOI: 10.18261/ISSN1891-943X-2015-02-04
  679. Ortlieb, Evan, e Megan Norris. 2012. “Using the Think-Aloud Strategy to Bolster Reading Comprehension of Science Concepts.” Current Issues in Education, 15 (1): 1-10.
  680. Ortlieb, Evan, Sargent Stephan, e Meagan Moreland. 2014. “Evaluating the efficacy of using a digital reading environment to improve reading comprehension within a reading clinic.” Reading Psychology, 35 (5): 397-421. DOI: 10.1080/02702711.2012.683236
  681. Østerlund, Carsten S. 2007. “Genre combinations: A window into dynamic communication practices.” Journal of Management Information Systems, 23 (4): 81-108. DOI: 10.2753/MIS0742-1222230405
  682. Oulasvirta, Antti, Rattenbury Tye, Ma Lingyi, e Eeva Raita. 2012. “Habits make smartphone use more pervasive.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 16: 105-114. DOI: 10.1007/s00779-011-0412-2
  683. Paasonen, Susanna. 2021. Dependent, Distracted, Bored. Affective Formations in Networked Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Kindle edition.
  684. Pachai, Amy A., Acai Anita, LoGiudice Andrew B., e Joseph A. Kim. 2016. “The mind that wanders: Challenges and potential benefits of mind wandering in education.” Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 2 (2): 134-146. DOI: 10.1037/stl0000060
  685. Paivio, Allan. 1986. Mental representations. A dual coding approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  686. Palincsar, Annemarie S., e Anne L. Brown. 1984. “Reciprocal teaching of Comprehension fostering and Comprehension monitoring activities.” Cognition and Instruction, 1 (2): 117-175. DOI: 10.1207/s1532690xci0102_1
  687. Palincsar, Annemarie S., e Laura Klenk. 1992. “Fostering literacy learning in supportive contexts.” Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25 (4): 211-225. DOI: 10.1177/002221949202500402
  688. Panksepp, Jaak. 1998. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.
  689. Paoletti, Gisella. 2011. Comprendere testi con figure. Immagini, diagrammi e grafici nel design per l'istruzione. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  690. Paoletti, Gisella. 2015. “Sempre connessi: il media multitasking a lezione e durante lo studio.” TD Tecnologie Didattiche, 23 (1): 26-32.
  691. Paré, Anthony, e Graham Smart. 1994. “Observing genres in action: Towards a research methodology”. In Genre and the new rhetoric, a cura di Aviva Freedman, e Peter Medway, 146-155. London: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.4324/9780203393277
  692. Parikka, Jussi. 2014. “Cultural Techniques of Cognitive Capitalism: Metaprogramming and the Labour of Code.” Cultural Studies Review, 20: 30-42. DOI: 10.5130/csr.v20i1.3831
  693. Pariser, Eli. 2011. The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. New York-London: Penguin Books.
  694. Parish-Morris, Julia, Mahajan Neha, Hirsh-Pasek Kathy, Golinkoff Roberta M., e Molly F. Collins. 2013. “Once upon a time: parent–child dialogue and storybook reading in the electronic era.” Mind, Brain, and Education, 7 (3): 200-211. DOI: 10.1111/mbe.12028
  695. PARCC. 2011. PARCC model content frameworks: English language arts/literacy grades 3–11. Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers.
  696. Paul, Johanna, Macedo-Rouet Mônica, Jean-François Rouet, e Marc Stadtler. 2016. “Why attend to source information when reading online? The perspective of ninth grade students from two different countries.” Computers & Education, 113: 339-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.020
  697. Payne, Stephen J., e William R. Reader. 2006. “Constructing structure maps of multiple on-line texts.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (5): 461-474. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2005.09.003
  698. Pearson, David P., e Margaret C. Gallagher. 1983. “The instruction of reading comprehension.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8 (3): 317-44.
  699. Pellegrini, Marta. 2019. “L’efficacia delle strategie didattiche per la comprensione del testo”. In Strategie efficaci per la comprensione del testo. Il Reciprocal Teaching, a cura di Antonio Calvani, e Lucia Chiappetta Cajola, 77-98. Firenze: SApIE.
  700. Pellerey, Michele. 2015. La valorizzazione delle tecnologie mobili nella pratica gestionale e didattica dell’istruzione e formazione a livello di secondo ciclo. Indagine teorico-empirica. Roma: CNOS-FAP.
  701. Peng, Ming, Chen, Xianke, Zhao Qingbai, e Zongkui Zhou. 2018. “Attentional scope is reduced by Internet use: A behavior and ERP study.” PLoS ONE, 13 (6): e0198543. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198543
  702. Perea, Manuel, Panadero Victoria, Moret-Tatay Carmen, e Pablo Gómez. 2012. “The effects of inter-letter spacing in visual-word recognition: Evidence with young normal readers and developmental dyslexics.” Learning and Instruction, 22 (6): 420-430. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2012.04.001
  703. Pérez, Ana, Potocki Anna, Stadtler Marc, Macedo-Rouet Mônica, Paul Johanna, Salmerón Ladislao, e Jean-François Rouet. 2018. “Fostering teenagers' assessment of information reliability: Effects of a classroom intervention focused on critical source dimensions.” Learning and Instruction, 58: 53-64. DOI: 10.29076/issn.2602-8379vol4iss7.2020pp40-52p
  704. Pernice, Kara. 2017. “F-Shaped Pattern of Reading on the Web: Misunderstood, But Still Relevant (Even on Mobile).” Nielsen Norman Group, 12 novembre 2017.
  705. Pernice, Kara. 2019. “Text Scanning Patterns: Eyetracking Evidence.” Nielsen Norman Group, 25 agosto, 2019.
  706. Pasquinelli, Elena. 2012. Irresistibili schermi. Fatti e misfatti della realtà virtuale. Milano: Mondadori Education.
  707. Peters, Michael A., e Petar Jandric. 2016. “Digital reading: From the reflective self to social machine.” Review of Contemporary Philosophy, 15: 153-170.
  708. Peters, Otto. 2013. Against the Tide: Critics of Digitalisation; Warners, Sceptics, Scaremongers, Apocalypticists. 20 Portraits. Oldenburg: Bis-Verlag der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg.
  709. Pezzini, Isabella. 1996. “L’immaginazione semiotica e l'ipertesto.” Relazione al Convegno di Cerisy “Au nom du sens. Colloque autour de Umberto Eco”, Centre Culturel International de Cerisy-la-Salle, 29 giugno - 9 luglio 1996.
  710. Pezzini, Isabella. 2002. Trailer, spot, clip, siti, banner. Le forme brevi della comunicazione audiovisiva. Roma: Meltemi.
  711. Pfost, Maximilian, Dörfler Tobias, e Cordula Artelt. 2013. “Students’ extracurricular reading behaviour and the development of vocabulary and reading comprehension.” Learning and Individual Differences, 26: 89-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.04.008
  712. Picton, Irene. 2014. The Impact of e-books on the Reading Motivation and Reading Skills of Children and Young People: A rapid literature review. London: National Literacy Trust.
  713. Pilkington, Edward. 2010. “Jonathan Franzen: ‘I must be near the end of my career – people are starting to approve’.” The Guardian, 25 settembre, 2010.
  714. Piper, Andrew. 2013. Il libro era lì. La lettura nell'era digitale. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  715. Porion, Alexandre, Aparicio Xavier, Megalakaki Olga, Alisson Robert, e Thierry Baccino. 2016. “The impact of paper-based versus computerized presentation on text comprehension and memorization.” Computers in Human Behavior, 54: 569-576. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.002
  716. Postman, Neil. 1993. Technopoly. La resa della cultura alla tecnologia. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.
  717. Postman, Neil. 1995. The end of education: Redefining the value of school. New York: Vintage Books.
  718. Poulet, Georges. 1969. “Phenomenology of reading. New Literary History.” 1 (1): 53-68. DOI: 10.2307/468372
  719. Prensky, Marc. 2009. “H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom.” Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 5 (3): Article 1.
  720. Pressley, M. 2002. “Metacognition and self-regulated comprehension”. In What research has to say about reading instruction, a cura di Alan Farstrup, e Jay S. Samuels, 291-309. Newark, DE, USA: International Reading Association.
  721. Project Information Literacy. 2011. “Russ Poldrack: May I Have Your Attention? The Brain, Multitasking, and Information Overload.” Smart Talks.
  722. Push Pop Press. “Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis.”
  723. Racine, Eric, Bar-Ilan, Ofek, e Judy Illes. 2005. “fMRI in the public eye.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6 (2): 159-164. DOI: 10.1038/nrn1609
  724. Railean, Elena. 2015. Psychological and Pedagogical Considerations in Digital Textbook Use and Development. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8300-6
  725. Railean, Elena. 2017. User Interface Design of Digital Textbooks: How Screens Affect Learning. Singapore: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-2456-6
  726. RAND Reading Study Group. 2002. Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension. Santa Monica, CA; Arlington, VA; Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation.
  727. Ranieri, Maria. 2007. “Evidence Based Education: un dibattito in corso.” Journal Of E- Learning And Knowledge Society, 3 (3): 147-152. DOI: 10.20368/1971-8829/767
  728. Ranieri, Maria. 2010. “La scuola digitale tra retorica e realtà.” In Crescere digitali, a cura di Barbara Bruschi, Antonio Iannaccone, e Rocco Quaglia, 45-66. Roma: Aracne.
  729. Ranieri, Maria. 2011. Le insidie dell’ovvio, Tecnologie educative e critica della retorica tecnocentrica. Pisa: ETS.
  730. Raviolo, Paolo. 2013. “Lettura digitale: problemi e prospettive.” Studium Educationis, 2: 121-132.
  731. Recalcati, Massimo, a cura di. 2007. Il Soggetto Vuoto. Clinica psicoanalitica delle nuove forme del sintomo. Trento: Erickson Edizioni.
  732. Recalcati, Massimo. 2014. L’ora di lezione. Per un’erotica dell’insegnamento. Torino: Einaudi.
  733. Reeves, Thomas C. 1993. “Pseudoscience in computer-based instruction: The case of learner control research.” Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 20 (2): 39-46.
  734. Reich, Stephanie M., Yau Joanna C., e Mark Warschauer. 2016. “Tablet­based ebooks for young children: What does the research say?.” Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 37 (7): 585-591. DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000335
  735. Rello, Luz, e Ricardo Baeza-Yates. 2013. “Good fonts for dyslexia.” ASSETS '13: Proceedings of the 15th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, Bellevue Washington, 21-23 ottobre 2013, 1-8. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. DOI: 10.1145/2513383.2513447
  736. Rello, Luz, Kanvinde Gaurang, e Ricardo Baeza-Yates. 2012. “A mobile application for displaying more accessible ebooks for people with dyslexia.” Procedia Computer Science, 14: 226-233. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2012.10.026
  737. Rello, Luz, Pielot Martin, Marcos Mari-Carmen, e Roberto Carlini. 2013. “Size matters (spacing not): 18 points for a dyslexic-friendly Wikipedia.” Proceedings of the 10th International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, Rio de Janeiro Brazil, May 13-15 2013, 1-4. New York: United Association for Computing Machinery. DOI: 10.1145/2461121.2461125
  738. Rheingold, Howard. 2013. Perché la rete ci rende intelligenti. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  739. Richardson, Joan. 2014. “Maryanne Wolf: Balance technology and deep reading to create biliterate children.” Phi Delta Kappan, 96 (3): 14-19.
  740. Richtel, Matt. 2011. “A Silicon Valley School That Doesn’t Compute.” The New York Times, 22 ottobre, 2011.
  741. Richter, Anna, e Mary L. Courage. 2017. “Comparing electronic and paper storybooks for preschoolers: Attention, engagement, and recall.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 48: 92-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2017.01.002
  742. Rideout, Victoria. 2017. The Common Sense Census: Media use by kids age zero to eight. San Francisco, CA: Common Sense Media.
  743. Riener, Cedar R., e Daniel Willingham. 2010. “The Myth of Learning Styles.” Change The Magazine of Higher Learning, 42: 32-35. DOI: 10.1080/00091383.2010.503139
  744. Ripamonti, Donata A. 2016b. “Bambini e tecnologie digitali: opportunità, rischi e prospettive di ricerca.” Tesi di dottorato, Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca.
  745. Rivoltella, Cesare P. 2011. Neurodidattica. Insegnare al cervello che apprende. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  746. Rivoltella, Cesare P. 2013. Fare didattica con gli EAS. Brescia: La scuola.
  747. Rivoltella, Cesare P. 2014. La previsione. Neuroscienze, apprendimento, didattica. Brescia: La scuola.
  748. Rivoltella, Cesare P. 2018. “Leggere e scrivere in digitale. Cosa cambia per il cervello? Perché nell'era della velocità va salvato il pensiero lento.”, 5 ottobre, 2018.
  749. Rivoltella, Cesare P. 2020a. Dipendenza mediatica e povertà cognitiva? Appunti sul rapporto tra media digitali ed economia della conoscenza. Scholé. Rivista di educazione e studi culturali, 2 (58): 39-57.
  750. Rivoltella, Cesare P. 2020b. Tempi della lettura. Media, pensiero, accelerazione. Brescia: Scholè.
  751. Robb, Michael B. 2010. New ways of reading: The impact of an interactive book on young children’s story comprehension and parent-child dialogic reading behaviors. Riverside, CA: University of California.
  752. Robbins, Katherine. 2010. “Online reading comprehension among seventh grade students with high incidence disabilities in inclusive settings: A mixed methods study.” PhD diss., Clemson University.
  753. Robins, David, e Jason Holmes. 2008. “Aesthetics and credibility in web site design.” Information Processing & Management, 44 (1): 386-399. DOI: 10.1016/j.ipm.2007.02.003
  754. Rodrigue, Tanya K. 2017a. “Digital Reading: Genre Awareness as a Tool for Reading Comprehension.” Pedagogy, 17 (2): 235-257. DOI: 10.1215/15314200-3770133
  755. Rodrigue, Tanya K. 2017b. “The Digital Reader, the Alphabetic Writer, and the Space Between: A Study in Digital Reading and Source-Based Writing.” Computers and Composition, 46: 4-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.compcom.2017.09.005
  756. Roncaglia, Gino. 2005. “Quali e-book per la didattica?”. In Libri elettronici. Pratiche della didattica e della ricerca, a cura di Roberto Delle Donne, 113-120. Napoli: Clio Press.
  757. Roncaglia, Gino. 2010. La quarta rivoluzione. Sei lezioni sul futuro del libro. Bari: Laterza.
  758. Roncaglia, Gino. 2013a. “Creare strati, animare i dati dove vanno gli e-book multimediali.” Mondo digitale, 45: 1-14.
  759. Roncaglia, Gino. 2013b. “L’uso degli e-book nella formazione e nella didattica: tre riflessioni sugli e-book di testo e sul loro ruolo.” La vita scolastica, 67 (10): 1-12.
  760. Roncaglia, Gino. 2018. L’età della frammentazione. Cultura del libro e scuola digitale. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  761. Rosa, Hartmut. 2015. Accelerazione e alienazione. Per una teoria critica del tempo nella tarda modernità. Torino: Einaudi.
  762. Rose, David H., e Anne Meyer. 2002. Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal Design for Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  763. Rose, Ellen. 2011. “The phenomenology of on-screen reading: University students' lived experience of digitised text.” British Journal of Educational Technology, 42 (3): 515-526. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01043.x
  764. Rosen, Christine. 2008. “The myth of multitasking.” The New Atlantis, 20: 105-110.
  765. Rosen, Larry D., Carrier Mark L, e Nancy A. Cheever. 2013. “Facebook and texting made me do it: Media-induced task-switching while studying.” Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (3): 948-958. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.001
  766. Rosenblatt, Louise M. 1978. The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of the literary work. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  767. Rosenshine, Barak, e Carla Meister. 1994. “Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research.” Review of Educational Research, 64 (4): 479-530. DOI: 10.3102/00346543064004479
  768. Rosman, Tom, Mayer Anne-Kathrin, e Günter Krampen. 2016. “A longitudinal study on information-seeking knowledge in psychology undergraduates: Exploring the role of information literacy instruction and working memory capacity.” Computers & Education, 96: 94-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2016.02.011
  769. Ross, Bella, Pechenkina Ekaterina, Aeschliman Carol, e Anne-Marie Chase. 2017. “Print versus digital texts: understanding the experimental research and challenging the dichotomies.” Research in Learning Technology, 25. DOI: 10.25304/rlt.v25.1976
  770. Ross, Kirsty M., Pye, Rachel E., e Jordan Randell. 2016. “Reading touch screen storybooks with mothers negatively affects 7-year-old readers’ comprehension but enriches emotional engagement.” Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 1-17. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01728
  771. Rouet, Jean-François. 2001. Cognition et technologies d’apprentissages. Université de Poitiers: Laboratoire Langage et Cognition.
  772. Rouet, Jean-François, e Anne Britt. 2014. “Multimedia learning from multiple documents.” In The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning, a cura di Richard E. Mayer, 813-841. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139547369.039
  773. Rouet, Jean-François, Britt Anne M, e Amanda M. Durik. 2017. “RESOLV: Readers’ representation of reading contexts and tasks.” Educational Psychologist, 52 (3): 200-215. DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2017.1329015
  774. Rowlands, Ian, Nicholas David, Williams Peter, Huntington Paul, Fieldhouse Maggie, Gunter Barrie, Withey Richard, Jamali Hamid R., Dobrowolski Tom, e Carol Tenopir. 2008. “The Google generation: the information behaviour of the researcher of the future.” Aslib Proceedings, 60 (4): 290-310. DOI: 10.1108/00012530810887953
  775. Rushby, Nick, e Jan Seabrook. 2008. “Understanding the past – illuminating the future.” British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (2): 198-233. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00816.x
  776. Russell, Bertrand. 1996. The Conquest of Happiness. Oxford: Routledge.
  777. Rvachew, Susan, Rees Kathrin, Carolan Elizabeth, e Aparna Nadig. 2017. “Improving emergent literacy with school-based shared reading: Paper versus ebooks.” International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 12 (12): 24-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcci.2017.01.002
  778. Ryan Camille D., Schaul Andrew J., Butner Ryan, e John T. Swarthout. 2020. “Monetizing disinformation in the attention economy: the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).” European Management Journal, 38 (1): 7-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.emj.2019.11.002
  779. Ryan, Marie-Laure. 2001. Narrative as virtual reality: Immersion and interactivity in literature and electronic media. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  780. Sackstein, Suzanne, Spark Linda, e Amy Jenkins. 2015. “Are e-books effective tools for learning? reading speed and comprehension: iPad vs. paper.” South African Journal of Education, 35 (4): 1-14. DOI: 10.15700/saje.v35n4a1202
  781. Sahin, Ayfer. 2011. “Effects of linear texts in page scrolling and page-by-page reading forms on reading comprehension introduction.” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10 (3): 94-100.
  782. Salarelli, Alberto. 2005. “Tempo di noia, tempo di lettura. Sistemi informativi, biblioteche e la deriva del ‘buon lettore’”. Biblioteche Oggi, 7: 31-40.
  783. Salmerón, Ladislao, e Victoria García. 2011. “Comprehension skills and children’s navigation strategies in hypertext.” Computers in Human Behavior, 27 (3): 1143-1151. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.12.008
  784. Salmerón, Ladislao, e Ana Llorens. 2018. “Instruction of digital reading strategies based on eye-movements modeling examples.” Journal of Educational Computing Research, 42 (2): 343-359. DOI: 10.1177/0735633117751605
  785. Salmerón, Ladislao, Strømsø Helge I., Kammerer Yvonne, Stadtler Marc, e Paul van den Broek. 2018. “Comprehension processes in digital reading.” In Learning to read in a digital world, a cura di Mirit Barzillai, Jenny Thomson, Sascha Schroeder, e Paul van der Broek, 91-120. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/swll.17.04sal
  786. Salmon, Lynda G. 2014. “Factors that affect emergent literacy development when engaging with electronic books.” Early Childhood Education Journal, 42 (2): 85-92. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-013-0589-2
  787. Sana, Faria, Weston Tina, e Nicholas J. Cepeda. 2013. “Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers.” Computers & Education, 62: 24-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.003
  788. Sandberg, Kate E. 2013. “Hypertext: Its nature and challenges for college students.” Journal of College Reading and Learning, 44: 51-71. DOI: 10.1080/10790195.2013.10850372
  789. Sanders, Barry. 1994. A is for ox: the collapse of literacy and the rise of violence in an electronicage. New York: Vintage.
  790. Sannipoli, Moira. 2017. “Emergent literacy and shared reading. Read without knowing how to read.” Form@re - Open Journal Per La Formazione in Rete, 17 (2): 52-62. DOI: 10.13128/formare-20539
  791. Santaella, Lucia. 2004. Navegar no ciberespaço. O perfil cognitivo do leitor imersivo. São Paulo: Paulus.
  792. Santaella, Lucia. 2013. Comunicação ubíqua. Repercussões na cultura e na educação. São Paulo: Paulus.
  793. Santaella, Lucia. 2014. “Hybrid discursive genres in the hypermedia era.” Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, 9 (2): 206-216. DOI: 10.1590/S2176-45732014000200013
  794. Santaella, Lucia. 2019. “The book as a cognitive prosthesis.” MATRIZes, 13 (3): 21-36. DOI: 10.11606/issn.1982-8160.v13i3p21-35
  795. Santana, Arthur D., Livingstone Randall M., e Yoon Y. Cho. 2013. “Print Readers Recall More than Do Online Readers.” Newspaper Research Journal, 34 (2): 78-92. DOI: 10.1177/073953291303400207
  796. Santini, Marina. 2007. “Characterizing genres of web pages: Genre hybridism and individualization.” Proceedings of the 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikoloa, 3-6 gennaio 2007, 71-80. DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2007.124
  797. Santini, Marina. 2008. “Zero, single, or multi? Genre of web pages through the users’ perspective.” Information Processing and Management, 44 (2): 702-737. DOI: 10.1016/j.ipm.2007.05.011
  798. Sawyer, Susan K. 2002. “Electronic Books: Their Definition, Usage and Role in Libraries.” LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research, 12 (2): 1-28.
  799. Scharinger, Christian, Kammerer Yvonne, e Peter Gerjets. 2015. “Pupil Dilation and EEG Alpha Frequency Band Power Reveal Load on Executive Functions for Link-Selection Processes during Text Reading.” PLoS ONE, 10 (6): e0130608. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130608
  800. Scheiter, Katharina, e Peter Gerjets. 2007. “Learner control in hypermedia environments.” Educational Psychology Review, 19 (3): 285-307. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-007-9046-3
  801. Schilhab, Theresa S. S. 2017. “Adaptive Smart Technology Use: The Need for Meta-Self-Regulation.” Frontiers in Psychology, 8 (298): 1-4. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00298
  802. Schilhab, Theresa S. S., Stevenson Matt P., e Peter Bentsen. 2018. “Contrasting Screen-Time and Green-Time: A Case for Using Smart Technology and Nature to Optimize Learning Processes.” Frontiers in Psychology, 9: Article 773. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00773
  803. Schirrmacher, Frank. 2009. Payback. Warum wir im Informationszeitalter gezwungen sind zu tun, was wir nicht wollen, und wie wir die Kontrolle über unser Denken zurückgewinnen. München: Blessing.
  804. Schirrmacher, Frank. 2010. La libertà ritrovata. Come (continuare a) pensare nell’era digitale. Torino: Codice Edizioni.
  805. Schneps, Matthew H., Thomson Jenny M., Chen Chen, Sonnert Gerhard, e Marc Pomplun. 2013a. “E-Readers are more effective than paper for some with dyslexia.” PLoS ONE, 8 (9): e75634. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075634
  806. Schneps, Matthew H., Thomson Jenny M., Sonnert Gerhard, Pomplun Marc, Chen Chen, e Amanda Heffner-Wong. 2013b. “Shorter lines facilitate reading in those who struggle.” PLoS ONE, 8 (8): e71161. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071161
  807. Schomisch, S., Zens Maria, e Philipp Mayr. 2012. “Are e-readers suitable tools for scholarly work?” Online Information Review, 37 (3): 388-404. DOI: 10.1108/OIR-12-2011-0221
  808. Schüll, Natasha D. 2012. Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  809. Schweitzer, Nicholas J., e Michael Saks. 2011. “Neuroimage evidence and the insanity defense.” Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 29 (4): 592-607. DOI: 10.1002/bsl.995
  810. Segal-Drori, Ora, Korat Ofra, Shamir Adina, e Pnina S. Klein. 2009. “Reading electronic and printed books with and without adult instruction: effects on emergent reading.” Reading and Writing, 23 (8): 913-930. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-009-9182-x
  811. Segers, Eliane, Nooijen Miranda, e Jan de Moor. 2006. “Computer vocabulary training in kindergarten children with special needs.” International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 29 (4): 343-345. DOI: 10.1097/MRR.0b013e328010f4e0
  812. Seidenberg, Mark. 2021. Leggere. Una scienza sottovalutata, tra teoria e pratica. Roma: Treccani.
  813. Sellen, Abigail, e Richard Harper. 2002. The Myth of the Paperless Office. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  814. Selwyn, Neil. 2009. “The digital native–myth and reality.” Aslib Proceedings, 61 (4): 364-379. DOI: 10.1108/00012530910973776
  815. Selwyn, Neil. 2011a. “Editorial: In praise of pessimism: the need for negativity in educational technology.” British Journal of Educational Technology, 42 (5): 713-718. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01215.x
  816. Selwyn, Neil. 2011b. Education and Technology. Key Issues and Debates. London-New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
  817. Serres, Michel. 2012. Non è un mondo per vecchi. Come i ragazzi rivoluzionano il sapere. Torino: Boringhieri.
  818. Sevensma, Kare. 2013. “Negotiating new literacies in science: An examination of at-risk and average-achieving ninth-grade readers’ online reading comprehension strategies.” PhD diss., Michigan State University. DOI: 10.25335/M5B743
  819. Shaffer, Kris. 2014. “The Critical Textbook.” Hybrid Pedagogy: A Journal of Learning, Teaching, and Technology, 4 maggio, 2014.
  820. Shamir, Adina, e Ofra Korat. 2006. “How to Select CD-ROM Storybooks for Young Children: The Teacher's Role.” The Reading Teacher, 59 (6): 532-543. DOI: 10.1598/RT.59.6.3
  821. Shamir, Adina, Korat Ofra, e Renat Fellah. 2012. “Promoting vocabulary, phonological awareness and concept about print among children at risk for learning disability: Can e-books help?” Reading and Writing, 25 (1): 45-69. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-010-9247-x
  822. Shamir, Adina, e Malka Margalit. 2011. “Technology and students with special educational needs: New opportunities and future directions.” European Journal of Special Needs Education, 26 (3): 279-282. DOI: 10.1080/08856257.2011.593816
  823. Shamir, Adina, e Inessa Shlafer. 2011. “E-books effectiveness in promoting phonological awareness and concept about print: A comparison between children at risk for learning disabilities and typically developing kindergarteners.” Computers & Education, 57: 1989-1997. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.05.001
  824. Shearer, Branton C., e Jessica M. Karanian. 2017. “The neuroscience of intelligence: Empirical support for the theory of multiple intelligences?” Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 6: 211-233. DOI: 10.1016/j.tine.2017.02.002
  825. Shearer, Elisa. 2018. Social media outpaces print newspapers in the U.S. as a news source. Pew Research Center, 10 dicembre, 2018.
  826. Shenk, David. 1997. Data Smog: Surviving the Information Glut. New York: HarperCollins.
  827. Shifman, Limor. 2013. Memes in Digital Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  828. Shirky, Clay. 2010. Surplus cognitivo. Creatività e generosità nell’era digitale. Torino: Codice.
  829. Shirky, Clay. 2010. “Does the Internet Make You Smarter?”. Wall Street Journal, 4 giugno, 2010.
  830. Shirky, Clay. 2014. “Why I Just Asked My Students To Put Their Laptops Away.” Medium, 9 settembre, 2014.
  831. Sidi, Yael, Ophir Yael, e Rakefet Ackerman. 2016. “Generalizing screen inferiority – does the medium, screen versus paper, affect performance even with brief tasks?” Metacognition and Learning, 11: 15-33. DOI: 10.1007/s11409-015-9150-6
  832. Sidi, Yael, Shpigelman Maya, Zalmanov Hagar, e Rakefet Ackerman. 2017. “Understanding metacognitive inferiority on screen by exposing cues for depth of processing.” Learning and Instruction, 51: 61-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.01.002
  833. Silverman, Craig. 2016. “This analysis shows how viral fake election news stories outperformed real news on Facebook.” BuzzFeed News, 16 novembre, 2016.
  834. Silverstone, Roger. 1999. Perché studiare i media? Bologna: Il Mulino.
  835. Simon, Herbert A. 1971. “Designing Organizations for an Information-Rich World”. In Computers, Communication, and the Public Interest, a cura di Martin Greenberger, 40-41. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
  836. Simon, Herbert A. 1997. Models of bounded rationality: Empirically grounded economic reason. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  837. Simone, Raffaele. 2000. La Terza Fase. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  838. Simone, Raffaele. 2012. Presi nella rete. La mente ai tempi del web. Milano: Garzanti.
  839. Sinatra, Gale M., e Doug Lombardi. 2020. “Evaluating sources of scientific evidence and claims in the post-truth era may require reappraising plausibility judgments.” Educational Psychologist, 55: 120-131. DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2020.1730181
  840. Singer, Lauren M., e Patricia Alexander. 2016. “Reading Across Mediums: Effects of Reading Digital and Print Texts on Comprehension and Calibration.” The Journal of Experimental Education, 85 (1): 155-172. DOI: 10.1080/00220973.2016.1143794
  841. Singer, Lauren M., e Patricia Alexander. 2017. “Reading on Paper and Digitally: What the Past Decades of Empirical Research Reveal.” Review of Educational Research, 87 (6): 1007-1041. DOI: 10.3102/0034654317722961
  842. Singer Trakhman, Lauren M., Alexander Patricia A., e Lisa E. Berkowitz. 2017. “Effects of processing time on comprehension and calibration in print and digital mediums.” Journal of Experimental Education, 87: 101-115. DOI: 10.1080/00220973.2017.1411877
  843. Slavin, Robert E., Lake Cynthia, Davis Susan, e Nancy A. Madden. 2011. “Effective programs for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis.” Educational Research Review, 6: 1-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2010.07.002
  844. Small, Gary W., Moody Teena D., Siddarth Prabha, e Susan Y. Bookheimer. 2009. “Your Brain on Google: Patterns of Cerebral Activation During Internet Searching.” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17 (2): 116-126. DOI: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181953a02
  845. Small, Gary, e Gigi Vorgan. 2008. IBrain. Surviving the Technological Alteration of the Modern. MindNew York: Collins Living.
  846. Smeets, D. J. H., e Adriana Bus. 2015. “The interactive animated e-book as a word learning device for kindergartners.” Applied Psycholinguistics, 36 (4): 899-920. DOI: 10.1017/S0142716413000556
  847. Soe, Kyaw, Koki Stan, e Juvenna M. Chang. 2000. Effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on reading achievement: A meta-analysis. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.
  848. Solimine, Giovanni. 2019. “La lettura e il suo contesto: i dati analizzati con il grandangolo.” AIB Studi, 58 (3). DOI: 10.2426/aibstudi-11886
  849. Solimine, Giovanni. 2020. “Lo stargate della lettura, ovvero il passaggio che stiamo attraversando.” AIB Studi, 60 (2). DOI: 10.2426/aibstudi-12179
  850. Solimine, Giovanni, e Giorgio Zanchini. 2020. La cultura orizzontale. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  851. Sosnoski, James. 1999. “Hyper-readings and their reading engines.” In Passions, pedagogies, and twenty-first century technologies, a cura di Gail E. Hawisher, e Cynthia L. Selfe, 161-77. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
  852. Soto, Christian, de Blume Antonio P., Jacovina Mathew, McNamara Danielle, Benson Nicholas, e Bernardo Riffo. 2019. “Reading comprehension and metacognition: The importance of inferential skills.” Cogent Education, 6 (1): 1-20. DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2019.1565067
  853. Sparrow, Betsy, Liu Jenny, e Daniel Wegner. 2011. “Google Effects on Memory: Cognitive Consequences of Having Information at Our Fingertips.” Science, 333 (6043): 776-778. DOI: 10.1126/science.1207745
  854. Spencer, Carrie. 2006. “Research on learners’ preferences for reading from a printed text or from a computer screen.” Journal of Distance Education, 21 (1): 33-50.
  855. Spiro, Rand J., DeSchryver Michael, Schira Hagerman Michelle, Morsink Paul M., e Thompson Penny, a cura di. 2015. Reading at a crossroads? Disjunctures and continuities in current conceptions and practices. New York: Routledge.
  856. Spitzer, Manfred. 2013. Demenza digitale. Come la nuova tecnologia ci rende stupidi. Milano: Corbaccio.
  857. Stablum, Franca. 2002. L’attenzione. Roma: Carocci.
  858. Steiner, George. 2001. Nessuna passione spenta. Saggi 1978-1996. Milano: Garzanti.
  859. Steiner, George. 2013. I libri hanno bisogno di noi. Milano: Garzanti.
  860. Steinkuehler, Constance. 2016. “Parenting and video games.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 59 (4): 357-361. DOI: 10.1002/jaal.455
  861. Stern, Pnina, e Lilach Shalev. 2013. “The role of sustained attention and display medium in reading comprehension among adolescents with ADHD and without it.” Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34: 431-439. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.08.021
  862. Stiegler, Bernard. 2010. Ce qui fait que la vie vaut la peine d’être vécue: De la pharmacologie. Paris: Flammarion.
  863. Stiegler, Bernard. 2013. Pharmacologie du Front national. Suivi du Vocabularie d’Ars Industrialis par Victor Petit. Paris: Flammarion.
  864. Stjernfelt, Frederik, e Anne M. Lauritzen. 2019. Your Post Has Been Removed: Tech Giants and Freedom of Speech. Springer Open. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-25968-6
  865. Støle, Hildegunn, Mangen Anne, Knut Schwippert. 2020. “Assessing children’s reading comprehension on paper and screen: a mode-effect study.” Computers & Education, 151: 1-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103861
  866. Strouse, Gabrielle A., e Patricia A. Ganea. 2016. “Are prompts provided by electronic books as effective for teaching preschoolers a biological concept as those provided by adults?” Early Education and Development, 1 (2): 1-15. DOI: 10.1080/10409289.2016.1210457
  867. Subrahmanyam, Kaveri, Michikyan Minas, Clemmons Christine, Carrillo Rogelio, Uhls Yalda T., e Patricia M. Greenfield. 2013. “Learning from paper, Learning from screens: Impact of screen reading and multitasking conditions on reading and writing among college students.” International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 3 (4): 1-27. DOI: 10.4018/ijcbpl.2013100101
  868. Sunstein, Cass R. 2009. 2.0. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  869. Supiano, Beckie. 2019. “Students Fall for Misinformation Online. Is Teaching Them to Read Like Fact Checkers the Solution?.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 25 aprile, 2019.
  870. Swales, John M. 2009. “Worlds of genre: Metaphors of genre”. In Genre in a Changing World, a cura di Charles Bazerman, Adair Bonini, e Débora Figueiredo, 3-16. West Lafayette, IND: Parlor Press. DOI: 10.37514/PER-B.2009.2324.2.01
  871. Swanson, Elizabeth, Austin Christy R., Stewart Alicia E., e Nancy Scammacca. 2020. “A meta-analysis examining the effect of e-book use on literacy outcomes for students in grades k-12.” Reading and Writing Quarterly, 36 (5): 480-496. DOI: 10.1080/10573569.2019.1696724
  872. Sweller, John. 1988. “Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning.” Cognitive Science, 12 (2): 257-285. DOI: 10.1207/s15516709cog1202_4
  873. Sweller, John, van Merrienboer Jeroen J. G., e Fred G. W. C. Paas. 1998. “Cognitive architecture and instructional design.” Educational Psychology Review, 10 (3): 251-296. DOI: 10.1023/A:1022193728205
  874. Takacs, Zsofia K., Swart Elise K., e Adriana G. Bus. 2014. “Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult.” Frontiers in Psychology, 5: Article 1366. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01366
  875. Takacs, Zsofia K., Swart Elise K., Adriana G. Bus. 2015. “Benefits and pitfalls of multimedia and interactive features in technology-enhanced storybooks: A meta-analysis.” Review of Educational Research, 85 (4): 698-739. DOI: 10.3102/0034654314566989
  876. Terranova, Tiziana. 2012. “Attention, economy and the brain”. In Culture Machine, a cura di Patrick Crogan, e Samuel Kinsley, 1-29.
  877. Testa, Annamaria. 2015. “Com’è il cervello di chi legge romanzi.” Internazionale, 8 giugno, 2015.
  878. Testa, Annamaria. 2017. “Capire i testi: quando lo facciamo, siamo tutti Ginger Rogers.” Nuovo e Utile - Teorie e pratiche della creatività, 4 aprile 2017.
  879. Thayer, Alexander, Lee Charlotte P., Hwang Linda H., Sales Heidi, Sen Pausali, e Ninad Dalal. 2011. “The imposition and superimposition of digital reading technology: the academic potential of e-readers.” Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancouver, 7-12 maggio 2011, 2917-2926. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. DOI: 10.1145/1978942.1979375
  880. Tisseron, Serge. 2016. 3,6,9,12. Diventare grandi all’epoca degli schermi digitali. Brescia: La Scuola.
  881. Toffler, Alvin. 1970. Future Shock. London: Bodley Head.
  882. Torgerson, Carole J., e Diana Elbourne. 2002. “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Teaching of Spelling.” Journal of Research in Reading, 25 (2): 129-143. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9817.00164
  883. Torgerson, Carole J., e Die Zhu. 2003. A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of ICT on Literacy Learning in English, 5-16. Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education.
  884. Torrijos-Muelas, Marta, González-Víllora Marta, e Ana Rosa Bodoque-Osma. 2021. “The Persistence of Neuromyths in the Educational Settings: A Systematic Review.” Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 591923. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.591923
  885. Toschi, Luca. 2011. La comunicazione generativa. Milano: Apogeo.
  886. Towndrow, Phillip A., Nelson, Mark E., e Wan F. B. M. Yusuf. 2013. “Squaring literacy assessment with multimodal design: An analytic case for semiotic awareness.” Journal of Literacy Research, 45 (4): 327-355. DOI: 10.1177/1086296X13504155
  887. Tran, Phuoc, Carrillo Rogelio, e Kaveri Subrahmanyam. 2013. “Effects of online multitasking on reading comprehension of expository text.” Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 7 (3): Article 2. DOI: 10.5817/CP2013-3-2
  888. Trinchero, Roberto. 2013. “Sappiamo davvero come far apprendere? Credenza ed evidenza empirica.” Form@re – Open Journal per la formazione in rete, 13 (2): 52-67. DOI: 10.13128/formare-13256
  889. Trinchero, Roberto. 2018. “Contro la guerra cognitiva. Educare allo scetticismo attivo.” MEDIA EDUCATION – Studi, ricerche, buone pratiche, 9 (1): 17-36.
  890. Trushell, John, Maitland Amanda, e Clare Burrell. 2003. “Pupils’ recall of an interactive storybook on CD-ROM.” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19 (1): 80-89. DOI: 10.1046/j.0266-4909.2002.00008.x
  891. Turkle, Sherry. 1984. The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. London: Granada.
  892. Turkle, Sherry. 1995. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  893. Turkle, Sherry. 2012. Insieme ma soli. Torino: Codice Edizioni.
  894. Turner, Kristen H., e Troy Hicks. 2015. “Connected reading is the heart of research.” English Journal, 105 (2): 41-48.
  895. Tveit, Åse, e Anne Mangen. 2014. “A joker in the class: Teenage readers' attitudes and preferences to reading on different devices.” Library & Information Science Research, 36 (3-4): 179-184. DOI: 10.1016/j.lisr.2014.08.001
  896. Twist, Liz, Schagan Ian, e Claire Hogson. 2007. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): Reader and Reading. National Report for England 2006. NFER and DCSF.
  897. Ulin, David L. 2010. The Lost Art of Reading: Why Books Matter in a Distracted Time. Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books.
  898. Van Daal, Victor, e Jenny M. Sandvik. 2013. “The Effects of Multimedia on Early Literacy Development of Children at Risk: A Meta-analysis”. In Technology as a Support for Literacy Achievements for Children at Risk, a cura di Adina Shamir, e Ofra Korat, 73-119. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5119-4_7
  899. van den Broek, Paul, Bohn-Gettler Catherine M., Kendeou Panayiota, Carlson Sarah, e Mary Jane White. 2011. “When a reader meets a text: The role of standards of coherence in reading comprehension”. In Text Relevance and Learning from Text, a cura di Matthew T. McCrudden, Joseph P. Magliano, e Gregory Schraw, 123-140. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  900. Van den Broek, Paul, e Panayiota Kendeou. 2015. “Building coherence in web-based and other non-traditional reading environments: Cognitive opportunities and challenges”. In Reading at a crossroads? Disjunctures and continuities in current conceptions and practices, a cura di Rand J. Spiro, Michael DeSchryver, Michelle Schira Hagerman, Paul M. Morsink, e Penny Thompson, 104-114. New York: Routledge.
  901. Van der Meer, Audrey L. H., e Frederikus R. van der Weel. 2017. “Only Three Fingers Write, but the Whole Brain Works: A High-Density EEG Study Showing Advantages of Drawing Over Typing for Learning.” Frontiers in Psychology, 8: 706. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00706
  902. Van der Weel, Adriaan. 2011. Changing Our Textual Minds: Towards a Digital Order of Knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  903. Vassiliou, Magda, e Jennifer Rowley. 2008. “Progressing the definition of ‘e‐book’.” Library Hi Tech, 26 (3): 355-368. DOI: 10.1108/07378830810903292
  904. Vedechkina, Maria, e Francesca Borgonovi. 2021. “A Review of Evidence on the Role of Digital Technology in Shaping Attention and Cognitive Control in Children.” Front. Psychol, 12: 611155. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.611155
  905. Veel, Kristin. 2011. “Information Overload and Database Aesthetics.” Contemporary Critical Studies, 8 (2-3): 307-319. DOI: 10.3366/ccs.2011.0025
  906. Vertecchi, Benedetto, a cura di. 2016. I Bambini e la scrittura. L’esperimento Nulla dies sine Linea. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  907. Vignola, Paolo, e Sara Baranzoni, a cura di. 2016. aut aut 371: Bernard Stiegler. Per una farmacologia della tecnica. Milano: Il saggiatore
  908. Villanueva, Luisa A., Luzón Marco J., e Noelia Ruiz-Madrid. 2008. “Understanding digital genres as semiotic artifacts: Meaning and cognition beyond standardised genres.” Computers and Composition Online Journal. Fall Issue. Elsevier
  909. Villanueva, María Luisa, Ruiz-Madrid María N., e Maria J. Luzón. 2010. “Learner autonomy in Digital Environments: Conceptual Framework”. In Digital Genres, New Literacies and Autonomy in Language Learning, a cura di Maria Jose Luzon, María Noelia Ruiz-Madrid, e María Luisa Villanueva, 1-22. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  910. Villegas, Paulina. 2021. “Cristiano Ronaldo snubbed Coca-Cola. The company’s market value fell $4 billion.” The Washington Post, 16 giugno, 2021.
  911. Vincelli, Maria. 2011. “L’ebook per le scuole italiane fra requisiti normativi e scelte editoriali.” Italian Journal of Library and Information Science -, 2 (2). DOI: 10.4403/
  912. Virilio, Paul. 1981. Velocità e politica: saggio di dromologia. Milano: Multhipla.
  913. Virilio, Paul. 1995. “Speed and information: Cyberspace alarm!” CTheory, 8-27.
  914. Vivanet, Giuliano. 2014. “Che cosa sappiamo sull’efficacia delle tecnologie didattiche con soggetti con disturbo dello spettro autistico?” Form@re – Open Journal per la Formazione in Rete, 4 (14): 77-92. DOI: 10.13128/formare-15798
  915. von Pfetten, Verena. 2016. “Read This Story Without Distraction (Can You?).” The New York Times, 29 aprile, 2016.
  916. Vygotskij, Lev S. 1934. Myšlenie i reč. Moskva-Leningrad: Socekgiz.
  917. Vygotskij, Lev S. 1978. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological functions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  918. Wajcman, Judy. 2014. Pressed for Time: The Acceleration of Life in Digital Capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  919. Waldron, Heather. 2010. “Internet addiction a real problem for U.S kids.” AAP News, 31 (5): 26. DOI: 10.1542/aapnews.2010315-26d
  920. Walker, Sue, Black Alison, Bessemans Ann, Bormans Kevin, Renckens Maarten, e Mark Barratt. 2018. “Designing digital texts for beginner readers: performance, practice and process”. In Learning to read in a digital world, a cura di Mirit Barzillai, Jenny Thomson, Sascha Schroeder, e Paul van der Broek, 31-56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/swll.17.02wal
  921. Wallace, David F. 2009. This is water: Some significant thoughts, delivered on a significant occasion, about living a compassionate life. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
  922. Wallis, Claudia. 2017. “A textbook dilemma: Digital or paper?. Do we learn better from printed books than digital versions? The answer from researchers is a qualified yes.” The Hechinger Report, 23 agosto, 2017.
  923. Walsh-Moorman, Elizabeth, e Kristine Pytash. 2021. “Making moves: Lateral reading and strategic thinking during digital source evaluation.” Journal of Media Literacy Education, 13: 106-117. DOI: 10.23860/JMLE-2021-13-1-9
  924. Wandell, Brian A., e Jason D. Yeatman. 2013. Biological development of Reading circuits. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2 (23): 261-268. DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2012.12.005
  925. Wang, Yen-Hui. 2016. “Reading strategy use and comprehension performance of more successful and less successful readers: a think-aloud study.” Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 16 (5): 1789-1813. DOI: 10.12738/estp.2016.5.0116
  926. Ward, Adrian F. 2013. “Supernormal: How the Internet is changing our memories and our minds.” Psychological Inquiry, 24 (4): 341-348. DOI: 10.1080/1047840X.2013.850148
  927. Waterhouse, Lynn. 2006a. “Multiple Intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence: A critical review. Educational Psychologist.” 41 (4): 207-225. DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep4104_1
  928. Waterhouse, Lynn. 2006b. “Inadequate evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence theories.” Educational Psychologist, 41 (4): 247-255. DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep4104_5
  929. Webster, James G. 2014. The Marketplace of Attention: How Audiences Take Shape in a Digital Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  930. Weedon, Alexis, Miller David, Franco Claudio Pires, Moorhead David, e Samantha Pearce. 2014. “Crossing media boundaries: adaptations and new media forms of the book.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 20: 108. DOI: 10.1177/1354856513515968
  931. Wegner, Daniel M., e Adrian F. Ward. 2013. “The internet has become the external hard drive for our memories.” Scientific American, 1 dicembre, 2013.
  932. Weisberg, Deena S., Keil Frank C., Goodstein Joshua, Rawson Elizabeth, e Jeremy R. Gray. 2008. “The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20 (3): 470-477. DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20040
  933. Wertheimer, Max. 1923. “Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt.” Psychologische Forschung, 4: 301-350. DOI: 10.1007/BF00410640
  934. White, Ryen. 2013. “Beliefs and biases in Web search.” Proceedings of the ACM SIGIR conference on research and development in information retrieval, Dublin, 28 luglio-1 agosto, 2013, 3-12. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. DOI: 10.1145/2484028.2484053
  935. Whitney, David, e Dennis M. Levi. 2011. “Visual crowding: A fundamental limit on conscious perception and object recognition.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15 (4): 160-168. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.02.005
  936. Wikipedia. 2020. “Carta elettronica”.
  937. Wilhelm, Jeffrey. 2001. Improving comprehension with think-aloud strategies. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.
  938. Willingham, Daniel T. 2017. The Reading Mind. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  939. Willingham, Daniel T., Hughes Elizabeth M., e David G. Dobolyi. 2015. “The scientific status of learning styles theories.” Teaching of Psychology, 42 (3): 266-271. DOI: 10.1177/0098628315589505
  940. Wineburg, Sam, Breakstone Joel, Smith Mark, McGrew Sarah, e Teresa Ortega. 2019. Civic Online Reasoning: Curriculum evaluation. Stanford University: Stanford History Education Group.
  941. Wineburg, Sam, e Sarah McGrew. 2017. Lateral reading: Reading less and learning more when evaluating digital information. Stanford University: Stanford History Educational Group Working Paper No. 2017-A1. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3048994
  942. Wineburg, Sam, e Sarah McGrew. 2019. “Lateral reading and the nature of expertise: Reading less and learning more when evaluating digital information.” Teachers College Record, 121 (11): 1-40.
  943. Wineburg, Sam, McGrew Sarah, Breakstone Joel, e Teresa Ortega. 2016. Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. Stanford Digital Repository.
  944. Winne, Philip H., e Allyson F. Hadwin. 1998. “Studying as self-regulated learning”. In Metacognition in educational theory and practice, a cura di Douglas J. Hacker, John Dunlosky, e Arthur C. Graesser, 277-304. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Inc.
  945. Wiradhany, Wisnu, e Mark R. Nieuwenstein. 2017. “Cognitive control in media multitaskers: two replication studies and a meta-analysis.” Atten Percept Psychophys. 79 (8): 2620-2641. DOI: 10.3758/s13414-017-1408-4
  946. Wolf, Maryanne. 2009a, “Beyond Decoding Words. In Does the brain like e-books?.” New York Times, 14 ottobre, 2009.
  947. Wolf, Maryanne. 2009b. Proust e il calamaro. Storia e scienza del cervello che legge. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.
  948. Wolf, Maryanne. 2016. Tales of literacy for the 21st century. The Literary Agenda. New York: Oxford University Press.
  949. Wolf, Maryanne. 2018. Lettore, vieni a casa. Il cervello che legge in un mondo digitale. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.
  950. Wolf, Maryanne. 2018b. “Skim reading is the new normal. The effect on society is profound.” The Guardian, 25 agosto, 2018.
  951. Wolf, Maryanne, e Mirit Barzillai. 2009. “The importance of deep reading.” Educational Leadership, 66 (6): 32-37.
  952. Wood, Sarah G., Moxley Jerad H., Tighe Elizabeth L., e Richard K. Wagner. 2018. “Does Use of Text-to-Speech and Related Read-Aloud Tools Improve Reading Comprehension for Students with Reading Disabilities?” A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51: 73-84. DOI: 10.1177/0022219416688170
  953. Woody, William D., Daniel Douglas B., e Crystal C. Baker. 2010. “E-books or textbooks: Students prefer textbooks.” Computers & Education, 55 (3): 945-948. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.04.005
  954. Wu, Tim. 2016. The attention merchants: The epic scramble to get inside our heads. New York, NY: Knopf.
  955. WWC, What Works Clearinghouse. 2010. Adolescent literacy: Reciprocal teaching. WWC Intervention Report
  956. Wylie, Judith, Thomson Jenny, Leppänen Paavo, Ackerman Rakefet, Kanniainen Laura, e Tanja Prieler. 2018. “Cognitive processes and digital reading”. In Learning to read in a digital world, a cura di Mirit Barzillai, Jenny Thomson, Sascha Schroeder, e Paul van der Broek, 57-90. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/swll.17.03wyl
  957. Wysocki, Anne F. 2004. “The Multiple Media of Multiple Texts: How Onscreen and Paper Texts Incorporate Words, Images, and Other Media.” In What Writing Does and How It Does It, a cura di Charles Bazerman, e Paul Prior, 123-63. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  958. Yancey, Kathleen B., Craig Jacob, Davis Matthew, e Michael Spooner. 2017. “Device. Display. Read: The Design of Reading and Writing and the Difference Display Makes”. In Deep Reading: Teaching Reading in the Writing Classroom, a cura di Patrick Sullivan, Howard Tinberg, Sheridan Blau, 33-56. Urbana, IL: NCTE.
  959. Yang, Mikeong, e Jung-Hoon Jung. 2016. “Can digital textbooks be a Faustian bargain?” Antistasis, 6 (1): 21-25.
  960. Yanovski, Roumen. 2002. Reporting Diversity. A Guide to Reporting Diversity. Sofia: South East European Network for Professionalization of the Media (SEENP).
  961. Yarkoni, Tal, Speer Nicole K., Balota David A., McAvoy Mark P, e Jeffrey M. Zacks. 2008. “Pictures of a thousand words: Investigating the neural mechanisms of reading with extremely rapid event-related fMRI.” Neuroimage, 42 (2): 973-987. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.04.258
  962. Young, Emma. 2017. “I trucchi del lettore intelligente.” Internazionale, 25 agosto, 2017.
  963. Youyou, Wu, Kosinski Michal, e David Stillwell. 2015. “Computer-based Personality Judgments Are More Accurate than those Made by Humans.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112 (4): 1036-40. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1418680112
  964. Zanto, Theodore P., e Adam Gazzaley. 2009. “Neural suppression of irrelevant information underlies optimal working memory performance.” The Journal of Neuroscience, 29 (10): 3059-66. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4621-08.2009
  965. Zanzi, Andrea. 2015. “Del leggere.” Medium, 12 agosto, 2015.
  966. Zarocostas, John. 2020. “How to fight an infodemic.” The Lancet, 395 (10225): 676. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30461-X
  967. Zavalloni, Gianfranco. 2009. La pedagogia della lumaca. Bologna: Emi.
  968. Zhang, Meilan. 2013. “Supporting middle school students’ online reading of scientific resources: Moving beyond cursory, fragmented, and opportunistic reading.” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29 (2): 138-152. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00478.x
  969. Zhang, Shenglan, e Nell K. Duke. 2008. “Strategies for internet reading with different reading purposes: A descriptive study of twelve good internet readers.” Journal of Literacy Research, 40 (1): 128-162. DOI: 10.1080/10862960802070491
  970. Zhou, Ninger, e Aman Yadav. 2017. “Effects of multimedia story reading and questioning on preschoolers’ vocabulary learning, story comprehension and reading engagement.” Educational Technology Research and Development, 65 (6): 1523-1545. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-017-9533-2
  971. Zhu, Erping. 1999. “Hypermedia interface design: The effects of number of links and granularity of nodes.” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8 (3): 331-358.
  972. Zhu, Xinran, Chen Bodong, Avadhanam Rukmini M., Shui Hong, e Raymond Z. Zhang. 2020. “Reading and connecting: Using social annotation in online classes.” Information and Learning Science, 121 (5): 261-271. DOI: 10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0117
  973. Zickuhr, Kathryn, Rainie Lee, e Kristen Purcell. 2013. Younger Americans’ library habits and expectations. Pew Internet & American Life Project, 25 giugno, 2013.
  974. Zimerman, Martin. 2012. “Digital natives, searching behavior and the library.” New Library World, 113 (3/4): 174-201. DOI: 10.1108/03074801211218552
  975. Zimmerman, Barry J. 2008. “Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects.” American Educational Research Journal, 45 (1): 166-183. DOI: 10.3102/0002831207312909
  976. Zimmerman, Frederick J., e Dimitri A. Christakis. 2005. “Children’s Television Viewing and Cognitive Outcomes.” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159 (7): 619-625. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.159.7.619
  977. Zorzi, Marco, Barbiero Chiara, Facoetti Andrea, Lonciari Isabella, Carrozzi Marco, Montico Marcella, e Johannes C. Ziegler. 2012. “Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (28), 11455-11459. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1205566109
  978. Zucker, Tricia A., Moody Amelia K., e Michael C. McKenna. 2009. “The effects of electronic books on pre-kindergarten to-grade 5 students’ literacy and language outcomes: A research synthesis.” Journal of Educational Computing Research, 40 (1): 47-87. DOI: 10.2190/EC.40.1.c
  979. Zuckerman, Barry, e Aasma Khandekar. 2010. “Reach Out and Read: Evidence based approach to promoting early child development.” Current Opinion In Pediatrics, 22 (4): 539-544. DOI: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32833a4673
  • Publication Year: 2022
  • Pages: 298
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-501-1
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2022 Author(s)

  • Publication Year: 2022
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-502-8
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2022 Author(s)

  • Publication Year: 2022
  • Pages: 298
  • ISBN: 978-88-5518-500-4
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2022 Author(s)

Bibliographic Information

Book Title

Il lettore 'distratto'

Book Subtitle

Leggere e comprendere nell’epoca degli schermi digitali


Andrea Nardi

Peer Reviewed

Number of Pages


Publication Year


Copyright Information

© 2022 Author(s)

Content License

CC BY 4.0

Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Publisher Name

Firenze University Press



ISBN Print


eISBN (pdf)


eISBN (xml)


Series Title

Studi e saggi

Series ISSN


Series E-ISSN


News and Events
Il lettore distratto
  • 18/03/2022




Search in This Book
Export Citation
Suggested Books


Open Access Books

in the Catalogue


Book Chapters





from 873 Research Institutions

of 64 Nations


scientific boards

from 340 Research Institutions

of 43 Nations



from 344 Research Institutions

of 37 Nations