Edited Book

Il giudizio nell'estrazione del terzo molare inferiore

  • Edited by:
  • Paolo Tonelli,

The scientific literature and clinical dental practice have in the extraction of the lower third molar an area of wide interest. In fact, parallel to the presence of prejudices and false beliefs on the part of patients, there is also a great variability of scientific opinions among professionals in the field, both in relation to the indications for extraction, diagnostic aids, and intra- and post-operative management. Our text aims to merge the awareness given by clinical experience with the knowledge of an evidence-based dental culture, proposing itself as a stimulus for in-depth study for students, professionals and enthusiasts of the subject. The multimedia digital resources (photos and videos) of some dental procedures can be freely consulted via the QR code on the cover.

  • Keywords:
  • wisdom,
  • teeth,
  • third,
  • molar,
  • extraction,
+ Show More

Available in Open Access from Jan 21, 2024


Paolo Tonelli

University of Florence, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0002-6534-8345

Paolo Tonelli graduated and specialized at the University of Florence. Associate Professor since 2002, he teaches oral surgery and implantology at the Degree Course in Dentistry and since 2005 he directs the School of Specialization in Oral Surgery at the dental clinic of Careggi.
Table of Contents



  1. AAOMS. 2014. “White paper on third molar data.” <https://www.aaoms.org/docs/govt_ affairs/advocacy_white_papers/white_paper_third_molar_data.pdf>
  2. Abraham-Injipin, Luzi. 1988. “Changes in Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and ECG During Dental Treatment.” 116(4): 531-6.
  3. Abrahamsson, Kajsa H., Berggren Ulf, Hallberg Lillemor, Carlsson Sven G. 2002. “Dental Phobic Patients’ View of Dental Anxiety and Experiencesin Dental Care: A Qualitative Study.” Scand J Caring Sci. 16(2): 188-96.
  4. Abul Abbas, Nelson Fausto, Robbins e Cotran. 2006. Le basi patologiche delle malattie. Torino: Elsevier.
  5. Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AOMRC). 2013. “Safe Sedation Practice for Healthcare Procedures: Standards and Guidance.” <https://www.aomrc.org.uk/reports-guidance/ safe-sedation-practice-1213/> (04/12/2013).
  6. Agarwal, Esha, Masamatti Sujata, and Ashish Kumar. 2014. “Escalating Role of Piezosurgery in Dental Therapeutics.” J Clin Diagn Res. 8(10): ZE08-ZE11.
  7. Agency for quality in dentistry. Unit of the Institute of German Dentists. 2006. “Guideline for surgical removal of third molars.” <http://www3.kzbv.de/zzqpubl.nsf/7549c- 7b9ec54d2dfc1257018002ad508/5f184e5d59df47ebc125714d004890fa/$FILE/ Leitlinie_Weish_EN.pdf>
  8. AIFA. 2011. “Problematiche di sicurezza e precauzioni di utilizzo extra-ospedaliero del farmaco protossido d’azoto (N2O). DDL sull’uso extraospedaliero del protossido d’azoto.” https:// www.aifa.gov.it/sites/default/files/ddl_protossido_dazoto__2_.pdf (02/02/2011).
  9. Al-Moraissi, Essam A., Al-Sharaee Yaser A., and Ahmed S. Alkhutari. 2016. “Does the Piezoelectric Surgical Technique Produce Fewer Postoperative Sequelae After Lower Third Molar Surgery Than Conventional Rotary Instruments? A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 45(3): 383-91.
  10. Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio, Incerti Parenti Sandra, and Luigi Checchi. 2008. “Orthodontic Extraction of Mandibular Third Molar to Avoid Nerve Injury and Promote Periodontal Healing.” Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 35(8): 719-23.
  11. Alexander, Roger E. 1999. “Routine Prophylactic Antibiotic Use in Diabetic Dental Patients.” J Calif Dent Assoc. 27(8): 611‐8.
  12. Alexander, Roger E., and Roger R. Throndson. 2000. “A Review of Perioperative Corticosteroid Use in Dentoalveolar Surgery.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 90(4): 406-15.
  13. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force Report. 1996. “Guidelines for Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery Circulation.” 93: 1278-317.
  14. American Psychiatric Association. 2014. DSM-V. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  15. Amico Roxas, Matilde, Caputi Achille P., e Mario Del Tacca. 2008. Farmacologia in odontoiatria. Torino: Utet.
  16. Amler, Melvin H. 1969. “The Time Sequence of Tissue Regeneration in Human Extraction Wounds.” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine an Oral Pathology. 27(3): 309-18.
  17. ANDI. 2016. “Tabelle di valutazione del danno odontostomatologico.” <https://www.proofweb. it/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Tabelle-valutazione-danno-ANDI-ProOF.pdf>
  18. Annibali, Susanna, De Biase Alberto, Pippi Roberto, and Gianluca L. Sfasciotti. 2011. “A Consensus Conference on Management of the Lower Third Molar Italian Society of Odontostomatological Surgery.” Minerva Stomatol. 60(10): 509-27.
  19. APHA. “Opposition to Prophylactic Removal of Third Molars (Wisdom Teeth).” <https:// www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policydatabase/ 2014/07/24/14/29/opposition-to-prophylactic-removal-of-third-molarswisdom- teeth> (28/10/2008).
  20. Aqadiri, Oladimeji A., and Ambrose E. Obiechina. 2009. “Assessment of Difficulty of Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 67(4): 771-4.
  21. Arakji, Hani, Shokry Mohamed, and Nayer Aboelsaad. 2016. “Comparison of Piezosurgery and Conventional Rotary Instruments for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Randomized Controlled Clinical and Radiographic Trial.” Int J Dent. 2: 1-7.
  22. Araújo, Mauricio G., and Jan Lindhe. 2005. “Dimensional Ridge Alterations Following Tooth Extraction. An Experimental Study in the Dog.” Journal of Clinical Perioontology. 32(2): 212-8.
  23. Araújo, Mauricio G., and Jan Lindhe. 2009. “Ridge Alterations Following Tooth Extraction with and Without Flap Elevation: An Experimental Study in the Dog.” Clin Oral Implants Res. 20(6): 545-9.
  24. Araújo, Mauricio G., Silva Cléverson O., Misawa Monica, and Flávia Sukekava. 2015. “Alveolar Socket Healing: What Can We Learn.” Journal of Clinical Perioontology. 68(1): 122-34.
  25. Aravena, Pedro, Manterola Carlos, Astudillo Paula, and Horacio Miranda. 2018. “Reliability and Validity of Measuring Scale for Postoperative Complications in Third Molar Surgery.” BMC Oral Health. 18(1): 1-7.
  26. Armstrong, Desirée, Jepson John B., Keele Cyril A., and Jesse W. Stewart. 1957. “Pain-producing Substance in Human Inflammatory Exudates and Plasma.” J Physiol (Lond). 135(2): 350-70.
  27. Arora, Anjana, Patil Bharati A., and Amandeep Sodhi. 2015. “Validity of the Vertical Tube- Shift Method in Determining the Relationship Between the Mandibular Third Molar Roots and the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Canal.” J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 41(2): 66-73.
  28. ASA Physical Status Classification System. 2019. <https://www.asahq.org/standards-andguidelines/ asa-physical-status-classification-system> (13/12/2020).
  29. Ashton-James, Claire E., Forouzanfar Tymour, and Daniel Costa. 2019. “The Contribution of Patients’ Presurgery Perceptions of Surgeon Attributes to the Experience of Trust and Pain During Third Molar Surgery.” Pain Rep. 4(3): e754.
  30. Assael, Leon A. 2005. “Indications for Elective Therapeutic Third Molar Removal: The Evidence Is in.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 63(12): 1691-92.
  31. Associazione Italiana di Anestesia Narcodontostomatologica (AINOS). 2001. “Linee guida sulla sedazione cosciente in odontoiatria.” Giorn Anest Stomatol. 28: I-VIII.
  32. Associazione Italiana Sedazionista Odontoiatri (AISOD). 2021. “Linee guida sulla sedazione cosciente in odontoiatria.” <https://snlg.iss.it/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/LG115_Lasedazione- cosciente-in-odontoiatria_v.26.05.21.pdf>
  33. Ataoğlu, Hanife, Oz Gülsün Yildirim, Candirli Celal, and Dilek Kiziloğlu. 2008. “Routine Antibiotic Prophylaxis Is Not Necessary During Operations to Remove Third Molars.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 46(2): 133-5.
  34. Au Alvin Ho Yeung, Choi Siu Wai, Cheung Chi Wai, and Yiu Yan Leung. 2015. “The Efficacy and Clinical Safety of Various Analgesic Combinations for postoperative Pain after Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” PLoS One. 10(6): e0127611.
  35. Azenha, Marcelo R., Kato Rogerio, de Barros Lima Bueno Renan, de Oliveira Neto Patricio José, and Michel C. Ribeiro. 2014. “Accidents and Complications Associated to Third Molar Surgeries Performed by Dentistry Students.” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 18(4): 459-64.
  36. Aznar-Arasa, Lluis, Figueiredo Rui, and Cosme Gay-Escoda. 2012. “Iatrogenic Displacement of Lower Third Molar Roots into the Sublingual Space: Report of 6 Cases.” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 70(2): e107-e115.
  37. Badenoch-Jones, Emma K., David M., and Trent Lincoln. 2016. “Piezoelectric Compared with Conventional Rotary Osteotomy for the Prevention of Postoperative Sequelae and Complications after Surgical Extraction of Mandibular Third Molars: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 54(10): 1066-79.
  38. Bailey, Edmund. 2018. “Prevention and Management of postoperative Pain in Oral Surgery.” Prim Dent J. 7(3): 57‐63.
  39. Ban Guan Tay, Andrew, and Wee Ser Go. 2004. “Effect of Exposed Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle During Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molars.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 62(5): 592-600.
  40. Baqain, Zaid H., Al-Shafii A., Hamdan Ahmad A., and Faleh Sawair. 2012. “Flap Design and Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Split Mouth Randomized Clinical Study.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 41(8): 1020-4.
  41. Baqain, Zaid H., Al-Shafii A., Hamdan Ahmad, and Faleh Sawair. 2012. “Flap Design and Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Split Mouth Randomized Clinical Study.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 41(8): 1020-4.
  42. Barletta, Michele, and Rachel Reed R. 2019. “Local Anesthetics: Pharmacology and Special Preparations.” Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 49(6): 1109‐25.
  43. Barone, Antonio, Santini Stefano, Marconcini Simone, Giacomelli Luca, Gherlone Enrico, and Ugo Covani. 2008. “Osteotomy and Membrane Elevation During the Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Procedure. A Comparative Study: Piezoelectric Device vs. Conventional Rotative Instruments.” Clin Oral Implants Res. 19(5): 511-5.
  44. Bassi, Gabriel S., Humphris Gerry M., and Lesley P. Longman. 2004. “The Etiology and Management of Gagging: A Review of the Literature.” J Prosthet Dent. 91(5): 459-67.
  45. Battaglia, Giorgio, and Aldo Rustioni. 1988. “Coexistence of Glutamate and Substance P in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons of the Rat and Monkey.” J Comp Neurol. 277(2): 302-12.
  46. Beck, Michael F., and Joel Weaver. 1981. “Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Responses to Anticipated High-stress Dental Treatment.” J Dent Res. 60(1): 26-9.
  47. Becker, Daniel E. 2010. “Pain Management: Part 1: Managing Acute and Postoperative Dental Pain.” Anesth Prog. 57(2): 67-79.
  48. Becker, Daniel E., and Kenneth L. Reed. 2012. “Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations.” Anesthesia Progress. 59(2): 90-102.
  49. Bedogni, Alberto, Campisi Giuseppina, Fusco Vittorio, e Alessandro Agrillo. 2013. Raccomandazioni clinico-terapeutiche sull’osteonecrosi delle ossa mascellari associata a bisfosfonati e sua prevenzione. Padova: CLEUP.
  50. Begg, Raymond. 1954. “Stone Age Man’s Dentition.” Am J Orthod Oral Surg. 40: 298-312.
  51. Behbehani, Faraj, Årtun Jon, and Lukman Thalib. 2006. “Prediction of Mandibular Third-molar Impaction in Adolescent Orthodontic Patients.” Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 130(1): 47-55.
  52. Beirne, Ross O. 2013. “Corticosteroids Decrease Pain, Swelling and Trismus.” Evid Based Dent. 14(4): 111.
  53. Beloeil, Helene, and Jean Xavier Mazoit. 2010. “Farmacologia degli anestetici locali.” EMC - Anestesia-Rianimazione. 15(4): 1-17.
  54. Benedetti, Fabrizio, and Martina Amanzio. 1997. “The Neurobiology of Placebo Analgesia: From Endogenous Opioids to Cholecystokinin.” Progr Neurobiol. 52(2): 109-25.
  55. Bensi, Caterina, Belli Stefano, Paradiso Daniele, e Giuseppe Lomurno. 2018. “Postoperative Bleeding Risk of Direct Oral Anticoagulants After Oral Surgery Procedures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 47(7): 923-32.
  56. Berge, Trond I., and Ole T. Gilhuus-Moe. 1993. “Per- and postoperative Variables of Mandibular Third-Molar Surgery by Four General Practitioners and One Oral Surgeon.” Acta Odontol Scand. 51(6): 389-97.
  57. Berggren, Ulf, and Gunnell Meynert. 1984. “Dental Fear and Avoidance: Causes, Symptoms, and Consequences.” J Am Dent Assoc. 109(2): 247-51.
  58. Biagioli, Bonizzella, Catena Glauco, Clementi Giuseppe, Grillone Giovanni, Merli Mario, e Marco Ranucci. 2000. “Raccomandazioni per la gestione perioperatoria del cardiopatico da sottoporre a chirurgia non cardiaca.” Minerva Anestesiol. 66: 85-104.
  59. Birn, Henry. 1973. “Etiology and Pathogenesis of Fibrinolytic Alveolitis.” International Journal of Oral Surgery. 2: 215-63.
  60. Bishara, Samir E., and George Andreasen. 1983. “Third Molars: A Review.” Am J Orthod. 83(2): 131-7.
  61. Björk, Arne, Jensen Elli, and Morgens Palling. 1956. “Mandibular Growth and Third Molar.” Acta Odontol Scand. 14: 231-72.
  62. Björk, Arne. 1963. “Variations in the Growth Pattern of the Human Mandible: Longitudinal Radiographic Study by the Implant Method.” J Dent Res. 42(1): 400-11.
  63. Blake, Marielle, and Kathryn Bibby. 1998. “Retention and Stability: A Review of the Literature.” Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 114: 299-306.
  64. Blatt, Sebastian, and Bilal Al-Nawas. 2019. “A Systematic Review of Latest Evidence for Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Therapy in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.” Infection. 47(4): 519-55.
  65. Bonica, Jhon J. 1985. “Biology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Acute Pain.” In Persistent Pain. volume 5. edited by Sampson Lipton S., and John Miles, 1-32. Orlando: Grune & Stratton.
  66. Borges Ribeiro, Marcus H., Ribeiro Cesar P., Retamal-Valdes Belén, Feres Magda, and Antonio Canabarro. 2019. “Microbial Pericoronitis Lesions: A Cross-Sectional Study.” J Appl Oral Sci. 28.
  67. Borgonovo, Andrea E., Vavassori Virna, e Dino Re. 2015. “La chirurgia degli ottavi: dalla programmazione dell’intervento alla gestione delle complicanze.” Il dentista moderno. <https:// www.ildentistamoderno.com/la-chirurgia-degli-ottavi-dalla-programmazione-dellinterventoalla- gestione-delle-complicanze/#:~:text=Lavori%20scientifici%20Chirurgia-,La%20chirurgia% 20degli%20ottavi%3A%20dalla%20programmazione%20dell,intervento%20alla%20 gestione%20delle%20complicanze&text=L’avulsione%20dei%20terzi%20molari,’attenta%20 valutazione%20pre%2Doperatoria> (08/12/2005).
  68. Borromeo, Gelsomina L., Tsao Claudine E., Darby Ivan B., and Peter R. Ebeling. 2011. “A Review of the Clinical Implications of Bisphosphonates in Dentistry.” Australian Dental Journal. 56(1): 2-9.
  69. Bouloux, Gary F., Steed Martin B., and Vincent J. Perciaccante. 2007. “Complications of Third Molar Surgery.” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America. 19(1): 117-28.
  70. Bourne, Geoffrey H. 1976. The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone. volume 1. New York: Academic Press.
  71. Bowdler, Henry. 1936. “A Preliminary Study of the Eruption of the Mandibular Third Molar Tooth in Man Based on Measurements Obtained from Radiographs, with Special Reference to the Problem of Predicting Cases of Ultimate Impaction of the Tooth.” Biometrika. 28(3- 4): 378-427.
  72. Bozkurt, Poyzan, and Erdal Erdem. 2017. “Management of upper and lower molars that are displaced into the neighbouring spaces.” British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 55(9): e49-e52.
  73. Brand, Henk, and Louise Abraham-Inpijn. 1996. “Cardiovascular Responses Induced by Dental Treatment.” Eur J Oral Sci. 104(3): 245-52.
  74. Breik, Omar, and Dragan Grubor. 2008. “The Incidence of Mandibular Third Molar Impactations in Different Skeletal Face Types.” Aust Dent J. 53: 320-4.
  75. Broadbent, Birdsall H. 1943. “The Influence of the Third Molars on the Alignment of the Teeth.” Am J Orthod Oral Surg. 29(6): 312-30.
  76. Bui, Chi H., Seldin Edward B., and Thomas B. Dodson. 2003. “Types, Frequencies, and Risk Factors for Complications after Third Molar Extraction.” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 61(12): 1379-89.
  77. Campbell, John H. 2013. “Pathology Associated with the Third Molar.” Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 25(1): 1-10.
  78. Cannon, Walter B. 1932. The Wisdom of the Body. New York: W.W. Norton.
  79. Capelli, Jonas. 1991. “Mandibular Growth and Third Molar Impaction in Extraction Cases.” Angle Orthod. 61(3): 223-9.
  80. Cardaropoli, Giuseppe, Araújo Mauricio G., and Jan Lindhe. 2003. “Dynamics of Bone Tissue Formation in Tooth Extraction Sites. An Experimental Study in Dogs.” Journal of Cinical Periodontology. 30(9): 809-18.
  81. Cassano, Giovanni B. 2016. Psicopatologia e clinica psichiatrica. Torino: Edra.
  82. Cavanaugh, Jamie J. 1985. “Third Molar Changes Following Second Molar Extractions.” Angle Orthod. 55(1): 70-6.
  83. Cerqueira, Paulo R., Vasconcelos Belmiro C., and Ricardo V. Bessa-Nogueira. 2004. “Comparative Study of the Effect of a Tube Drain in Impacted Lower Third Molar Surgery.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 62(1): 57-61.
  84. Chahl, Loris A. 2006. “Tachykinins and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.” Curr Drug Targets. 7(8): 993-1003.
  85. Chandak, Shruti, and Chandrakant M. Shetty. 2014. “Comparative Study of Dentascan and Radiography for Radiological Evaluation of Impacted Teeth.” J Clin Diagn Res. 8(7): RC01-RC5.
  86. Chauvin, Maeva, Mazoit Jean-Xavier, Andrivon F., Goeou O., and Philippe Duvaldestin. 1987. “Bupivacaine Pharmacokinetics During Axillary Brachial Plexus Block in Renal Failure.” Anesthesiology. 67: A261.
  87. Chen, Qi, Wang Lufei, Ge Lina, Gao Yuan, and Hang Wang. 2015. “The Anxiolytic Effect of Midazolam in Third Molar Extraction: A Systematic Review.” PLoS One. 10(4): e0121410.
  88. Cheung, Chi W., Ching Wong Stanley S., Qiu Qiu, and Wang Xianyu. 2017. “Oral Oxycodone for Acute Postoperative Pain: A Review of Clinical Trials.” Pain Physician. 20(2S): SE33-SE52.
  89. Chiapasco, Matteo. 2002. Manuale illustrato di chirurgia orale. Milano: Masson.
  90. Chiapasco, Matteo. 2013. Manuale illustrato di chirurgia orale. Milano: Masson.
  91. Chiapasco, Matteo. 2013. Manuale illustrato di chirurgia orale. Milano: Masson.
  92. Chiapasco, Matteo. 2013. Manuale illustrato di chirurgia orale. Milano: Masson.
  93. Chiapasco, Matteo. 2016. Manuale illustrato di chirurgia orale. Milano: Masson.
  94. Cho, Howard, Anthony J. Lynham, and Edward Hsu. 2017. “Post-operative Interventions to Reduce Inflammatory Complications After Third Molar Surgery: Review of the Current 96 Evidence. Aust Dent J. 62(4): 412-9.
  95. Cicciù, Marco, Reo Piero, Grossi Giovanni Battista, e Carlo Maiorana. 2008. “Enfisema sottocutaneo in seguito ad estrazione del terzo molare inferiore: un caso clinico.” Doctor OS. 19(5): 497-501.
  96. Clark, Morris S., Silverstone Leon M., Coke John M., and John Hicks. 1987. “Midazolam, Diazepam, and Placebo as Intravenous Sedatives for Dental Surgery.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 63(1): 127-31.
  97. Clark, Ronald N., Rodrigo M.R. 1986. “A Comparative Study of Intravenous Diazepam and Midazolam for Oral Surgery.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 44(11): 860-3.
  98. Clé-Ovejero, Adrià, Sánchez-Torres Alba, Camps-Font Octavi, Gay-Escoda Cosme, Figueiredo Rui, and Eduard Valmaseda-Castellón. 2017. “Does 3-dimensional Imaging of the Third Molar Reduce the Risk of Experiencing Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury Owing to Extraction? A Meta-Analysis.” J Am Dent Assoc. 148(8): 575-83.
  99. Cohen S.M., Fiske J., and Jonathon T. Newton. 2000. “The Impact of Dental Anxiety on Daily Living.” Br Dent J. 189(7): 385-90.
  100. Collado, Valérie, Nicolas Emmanuel, and Martine Hennequin. 2008. “Dental Difficulty for Adult Patients Undergoing Different Dental Procedures According to Level of Dental Anxiety.” Odontostomatol Trop. 31(124): 35-42.
  101. Colloca, Luana, and Fabrizia Benedetti. 2007. “Nocebo Hyperalgesia: How Anxiety Is Turned Into Pain.” Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 20(5): 435-9.
  102. Comitato Consultivo per la formazione dei dentisti. Bruxelles. (19/11/1986).
  103. Conrado, Valeria C., de Andrade Januario, de Angelis Gabriella A., de Andrade Ana C., Timerman Lilia, Andrade Mercedes M., Moreira D., Souse Amanda, Sousa Eduardo, and Leopoldo Soares Piegas. 2007. “Cardiovascular Effects of Local Anesthesia with Vasoconstrictor During Dental Extraction in Coronary Patients.” Arq Bras Cardiol. 88(5): 507-13.
  104. Contar, Cintia M., de Olivera Priscila, Kanegusuku Karina, Berticelli Rosana-da Silva, Reis Azevedo-Alanis Luciana, and Maria-Angela-Naval Machado. 2010. “Complications in Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study of 588 Patients.” Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 15(1): 74-8.
  105. Corah, Norman L., Gale Elliot N., and Stephen J. Illig. 1978. “Assessment of a Dental Anxiety Scale.” J Am Dent Assoc. 97(5): 816-9.
  106. Corte Suprema di Cassazione. 2019. “Sentenza Cassazione Civile n. 1575.” <https://sentenze. laleggepertutti.it/sentenza/cassazione-civile-n-1575-del-22-01-2019> (22/01/2019).
  107. Coulthard, Paul. 2013. “The Indicator of Sedation Need (IOSN).” Dent Update. 40(6): 466- 8, 470-1.
  108. Coutaux, Anne. 2017. “Non-pharmacological Treatments for Pain Relief: TENS and Acupuncture.” Joint Bone Spine. 84(6): 657-66.
  109. Cowpe, Jonathan, Plasschaert A., Harzer Winfried, Vinkka-Puhakka H., and Anthony D. Walmsley. 2010. “Profile and Competences for the Graduating European Dentist. Update 2009.” Eur J Dent Educ. 14(4): 193-202.
  110. Craig, Gerard, and Barrett J. Rollins, 2001. “Chemokines and Disease.” Nature Immunology. 2(2): 108-15.
  111. Curatolo, Michele, and Gorazd Sveticic. 2002. “Drug Combinations in Pain Treatment: A Review of the Published Evidence and a Method for Finding the Optimal Combination.” Best Practice and Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. 16(4): 507-19.
  112. Cutilli, Tommaso, Bourelaki Theodora, Scarsella Secondo, Di Fabio Desiderio, Pontecorvi Emanuele, Cargini Pasqualino, and Luis Junquera. 2013. “Pathological (Late) Fractures of the Mandibular Angle after Lower Third Molar Removal: A Case Series.” Journal of Medical Case Reports. 7: 121.
  113. Damia, Giovanni, e Luigi Paglia. 2017. L’analgesia relativa secondo Langa. Milano: Tecniche Nuove.
  114. Darby, Ivan, Chen Stephen T., and Daniel Buser. 2009. “Ridge Preservation Techniques for Implant Therapy.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 24: 260-71.
  115. de Boer, Marteen P., Raghoebar Gerry M., Stegenga Boudewijrt, Schoen Pieter J., and G. Boering. 1995. “Complications after Mandibular Third Molar Extraction.” Quintessence Int. 26(11): 779-84.
  116. De Molon, Rafael, Mario H. Arruda Verzola, Pires Luana C., Mascarenhas Vinicius, da Silva Rodrigo B., Cirelli Joni, and Roberto Barbeiro. 2015. “Five Years Follow-up of A Keratocyst Odontogenic Tumor Treated by Marsupialization and Enucleation: A Case Report and Literature Review.” Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. 6(5): 106.
  117. de Santana-Santos, Thiago, de Souza-Santos Adson-Alípio-Santana, Martins Paulo, and Luiz Carlos Ferreira da Silva. 2013. “Prediction of Postoperative Facial Swelling, Pain and Trismus Following Third Molar Surgery Based on Preoperative Variables.” Medicina Oral Patología Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 18(1): e65-e70
  118. de Santana-Santos, Thiago, de Souza-Santos J.A.S., Martins Paulho, Ferreira da Silva Luiz C., de Oliveira E Silva E.D., Amorim Gomes Ana-Claudia. 2013. “Prediction of Postoperative Facial Swelling, Pain and Trismus Following Third Molar Surgery Based on Preoperative Variables.” Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 18(1): 65-70.
  119. de Toledo Telles-Araújo, Gabriel, Peralta-Mamani Mariela, Caminha Raquel D’Aquino Garcia, Moraes-da-Silva Aneliza de Fatima, Fischer Rubira Cássia Maria, Honório Heitor Marques, and Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira-Bullen. 2020. “CBCT Does Not Reduce Neurosensory Disturbances After Third Molar Removal Compared to Panoramic Radiography: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” Clin Oral Investig. 24(3): 1137-49.4
  120. de-Azevedo-Vaz, Sergio Lins, Costa Oenning Anne Caroline, Graciano Felizardo Marcela, Haiter-Neto Francisco, and Deborah Queiroz de Freitas. 2015. “Accuracy of the Vertical Tube Shift Method In Identifying the Relationship Between the Third Molars and the Mandibular Canal.” Clin Oral Investig. 19(3): 583-8.
  121. DeAngelis, Adrian F., Chambers Ian G., and George M. Hall. 2009. “Temporomandibular Joint Disorders in Patients Referred for Third Molar Extraction.” Australian Dental Journal. 54(4): 323-5.
  122. Della Valle, Antonio, Sammartino Gilberto, Marenzi Gaetano, Tia Mariano, Espedito di Lauro Alessandro, Ferrari Francesca, and Lorenzo Lo Muzio. 2003. “Prevention of Postoperative Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients Undergoing Oral Surgery: Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma Gel.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 61(11): 1275-8.
  123. Denson, Donald D., and Jean-Xavier Mazoit. 1992. “Physiology and Pharmacology of Local 62.” In: Raymond S. Sinatra, (edited by). Acute Pain: Mechanisms and Management, 124- 39. St Louis: Mosby.
  124. Denson, Donald D., Myers Jane A., Hartrick Craig T., Pither Charles, Coyle Dennis, and Phulchand Raj. 1984. “The Relationship between Free Bupivacaine Concentration and Central Nervous Toxicity.” Anesthesiology. 61: A211.
  125. DeSantana, Josimari M., Walsh Deirdre M., Vance Carol, Rakel Barbara A., Sluka Kathleen A. 2008. “Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Hyperalgesia and Pain.” Curr Rheumatol Rep. 10(6): 492-99.
  126. Dhonge, Roshan P., et al. 2015. “An Insight into Pericoronitis.” Int J Dent Med Res. 8(3): 172-5.
  127. Di Fede, Olga, Panzarella Vera, Mauceri Rodolfo, Fusco Vittorio, Bedogni Alberto, Lo Muzio Lorenzo, SIPMO ONJ Board, e Giuseppina Campisi. 2018. “The Dental Management of Patients at Risk of Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: New Paradigm of Primary Prevention.” Biomed Res Int. 6: 1-10.
  128. Dinarello, Charles A. 2002. “The IL-1 Family and Inflammatory Diseases.” Clin Exp Rheumatol. 20(5 Suppl 27): S1-13.
  129. Dionne, Raymond, Campbell Robert A., Cooper Stephen A., Hall David L., and Barbara Buckingham. 1983. “Suppression of Postoperative Pain by Preoperative Administration of Ibuprofen in Comparison to Placebo, Acetaminophen, and Acetaminophen Plus Codeine.” J Clin Pharmacol. 23(1): 37-43.
  130. Dionne, Raymond, Gordon Sharon M., Rowan Janet, Kent Allison, and Jaime Brahim. 2003. “Dexamethasone Suppresses Peripheral Prostanoid Levels Without Analgesia in A Clinical Model of Acute Inflammation.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 61: 997-1003.
  131. Doh, Re-Mee, Shin Sooil, and Tae Min You. 2018. “Delayed Paresthesia of Inferior Alveolar Nerve after Dental Surgery: Case Report and Related Pathophysiology.” Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 18(3): 177-82.
  132. Dohan Ehrenfest, David M., de Peppo Giuseppe M., Doglioli Pierre, and Gilberto Sammartino. 2009. “Slow Release of Growth Factors and Thrombospondin-1 in Choukroun’s Plateletrich Fibrin (PRF): A Gold Standard to Achieve for All Surgical Platelet Concentrates Technologies.” Growth Factors. 27(1): 63-9.
  133. Dohan, David M., Choukroun Joseph, Diss Antoine, Dohan Steve L., Dohan Anthony J.J., Mouhyi Jaafar, and Bruno Gogly. 2006. “Platelet-rich Fibrin (PRF): A Second-generation Platelet Concentrate. Part II: Platelet-related Biologic Features.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol End. 101(3): e45-50.
  134. Dolanmaz, Dogan, Esen Alparslan, Isik Kubilay, and Celal Candirli. 2012. “Effect of 2 Flap Designs on Postoperative Pain and Swelling after Impacted Third Molar Surgery.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 116(4): e244-6.
  135. Dou, Lei, Maria Vanschaayk Margaret, Zhang Yan, Fu Xiaoming, Ji Ping, and Deqin Yang. 2018. “The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety and Its Association with Pain and Other Variables among Adult Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis.” BMC Oral Health. 18(1): 101.
  136. Doyle, Daniel J., Goyal Amandeep, and Emily H. Garmon. 2021. American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification. Treasure Island: StatPearls Publishing.
  137. DuBrul, Lloyd E. 1988. Anatomia Orale di Sicher. Milano: Edi. Ermes.
  138. Dumbrigue, Herman B., Lim Maire V., Rudman Robert A., and Antonia Serrano. 1997. “A Comparative Study of Anesthetic Techniques for Mandibular Dental Extraction.” Am J Dent. 10(6): 275-8.
  139. Dworkin, Samuel F., and Linda LeResche. 1992. “Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Review, Criteria, Examinations and Specifications, Critique.” J Craniomandib Disord. 6(4): 301-55.
  140. Ebertz, Mark J., Hirshman Carol A., Kettelkamp Nancy S., Uno Hideo, and Jon M. Hanifin. 1987. “Substance P-Induced Histamine Release in Human Cutaneous Mast Cells.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 88(6): 682-5.
  141. Ekman, Paul. 1982. Method for Measuring Facial Action. Non Verbal Behaviour Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  142. Elad, Sharon, Garfunkel Adi, Or Reuven, Michaeli Eli, Shapira Michael Y., and Dan Galili. 2003. “Time Limitations and the Challenge of Providing Infection-Preventing Dental Care to Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Patients.” Support Care Cancer. 11(10): 674‐7.
  143. Elad, Sharon, Raber-Durlacher Judith E., Brennan Michael T., Saunders Deborah P., Mank Arno P., Zadik Yehuda, Quinn Barry, Epstein Joel B., Blijlevens Nicole M., Waltimo Tuomas, Passweg Jakob R., Correa Elvira P., Dahllöf Göran, Garming-Legert Karin U., Logan Richard M., Potting Carin M., Shapira Michael Y., Soga Yoshihiko, Stringer Jacqui, Stokman Monique A., Vokurka Samuel, Wallhult Elisabeth, Yarom Noam, and Siri Beier Jensen. 2015. “Basic Oral Care for Hematology-Oncology Patients and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients: A Position Paper from the Joint Task Force of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).” Supportive care in cancer: official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 23(1): 223-36.
  144. Erdogan, Ozgür, Tatli Ufuk, Ustün Yakup, and Ibrahim Damlar. 2011. “Influence of Two Different Flap Designs on the Sequelae of Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.” Oral Maxillofac Surg. 15(3): 147-52.
  145. Erdogan, Özgür, Tatlı Ufuk, Üstün Yakup, and Ibrahim Damlar. 2011. “Influence of Two Different Flap Designs on the Sequelae of Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.” Oral Maxillofac Surg. 15(3): 147-52.
  146. Erickson, Milton H. 1983. La mia voce ti accompagnerà. I racconti didattici di Milton Erickson. Roma: Astrolabio.
  147. Evans, Andrew W., Aghbeigi B., Leeson Rachel, O’Sullivan Caoimhe, and Joseph Eliahoo. 2002. “Assessment of Surgeon Competency to Remove Mandibular Third Molar Teeth.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 31(4): 434-8.
  148. Evans, Andrew W., Aghbeigi B., Leeson Rachel, O’Sullivan Caoimhe, and Joseph Eliahoo. 2002. “Assessment of Surgeon Competency to Remove Mandibular Third Molar Teeth.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 31(4): 434-8.
  149. Facco, Enrico, e Zanette Gastone. 2017. “The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review.” Front Psychol. 8: 1155.
  150. Facco, Enrico, Gumirato Edoardo, Humphris Gerry Michael, Stellini Edoardo, Bacci Christian, Sivolella Stefano, Cavallin Francesco, and Gastone Zanette. 2015. “Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: Validation of the Italian version.” Minerva Stomatol. 64(6): 295-307.
  151. Facco, Enrico, Stellini Edoardo, Bacci Christian, Manani G., Pavan C., Cavallin Francesco, and Gastone Zanette. 2013. “Validation of Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) in Preanesthesia Evaluation.” Minerva Anestesiol. 79(12): 1389-95.
  152. Facco, Enrico, Zanette Gastone, Favero L., Bacci Christian, Sivolella Stefano, Cavallin Francesco, Manani G. 2011. “Toward the Validation of Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety.” Anesth Prog. 58(1): 8-13.
  153. Faraco, Fatima Neves, Armonia Paschoal Laércio, Simone José Leonardo, and Nicolau Tortamano. 2003. “Assessment of Cardiovascular Parameters During Dental Procedures under the Effect of Benzodiazepines: A Double Blind Study.” Braz Dent J. 14(3): 215-9.
  154. Faravelli, Carlo, Lo Sauro Carolina, Lelli Lorenzo, Pietrini Francesco, Lazzeretti Lisa, Godini Lucia, Benni Laura, Fioravanti Giulia, Talamba Gabriela Alina, Castellini Giovanni, and Valdo Ricca 2012. “The Role of Life Events and HPA Axis in Anxiety Disorders: A Review.” Curr Pharm Des. 18(35): 5663-74.
  155. Federazione nazionale degli ordini dei medici chirurghi e degli odontoiatri. 2014. “Codice di Deontologia Medica.” <https://portale.fnomceo.it/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/ CODICE-DEONTOLOGIA-MEDICA-2014.pdf>
  156. Ficarra, Giuseppe. 2006. Manuale di patologia e medicina orale. Milano: McGraw-Hill.
  157. Fiset, Louis, Milgrom P., Weinstein Philip, and Sandra Melnick. 1989. “Common Fears and Their Relationship to Dental Fear and Utilization of the Dentist.” Anesth Prog. 36(6): 258-64. Friedman, Nathan. 1967. “Iatrosedation.” In Emergencies in Dental Practice, edited by Frank M. McCarthy, 1-32. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
  158. Flygare, Lennart, and Anders Öhman. 2008. “Preoperative Imaging Procedures for Lower Wisdom Teeth Removal.” Clin Oral Investig. 12: 291-302.
  159. Freedman, Gary L. 1992. “Intentional Partial Odontectomy: Report Of Case.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 50(4): 419-21.
  160. Gady, Jacob, and Marc C. Fletcher. 2013. “Coronectomy.” Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics. 21(2): 221-6.
  161. Gale, Elliot N. 1972. “Fears of the Dental Situation.” J Dent Res. 51(4): 964-6.
  162. Gandini, Giorgio, Franchini Massimo, Dolci Marco, de Gironcoli Marzia, Bertuzzo Daniela, Benini Fabio, e Giuseppe Aprili. 2000. “Chirurgia orale nei pazienti affetti da deficit ereditari della coagulazione.” La trasfusione del sangue. 45(2): 96-101.
  163. Gao, Yongbo, Lin Zhenyan, Rodella Luigi F., Buffoli Barbara, Wu Xifen, and Yanmin Zhou. 2014. “Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Bone Surgery System in the Extraction Surgery of Supernumerary Teeth.” J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 42(8): 1577-82.
  164. Gassling, Volker L.W., Açil Yahya, Springer Ingo N., Hubert Nina, and Jörg Wiltfang. 2009. “Platelet-rich Plasma and Platelet-rich Fibrin in Human Cell Culture.” Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. 108(1): 48-55.
  165. Gavazzi, Michela, De Angelis Donato, Blasi Sergio, Pesce Paolo, e Valentina Lanteri. 2014. “Third Molars and Dental Crowding: Different Opinions of Orthodontists and Oral Surgeons Among Italian Practitioners.” Prog Orthod. 15(1): 60.
  166. Gazzetta Ufficiale delle Comunità Europee. 1978. “Direttiva del Consiglio del 25 luglio 1978 concernente il coordinamento delle disposizioni legislative, regolamentari e amministrative per le attività di dentista (78/687/CEE).” <https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/ TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:31978L0687&from=SL> (24/08/1978).
  167. Gbotolorun, Olalekan M., Arotiba Godwin T., and Akinola L. Ladeinde. 2007. “Assessment of Factors Associated with Surgical Difficulty in Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Extraction.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 65(10): 1977-83.
  168. General Dental Council (GDC). 1997. “Maintaining Standards. Guidance to Dentists, Dental Hygienists and Dental Therapists on Professional and Personal Conduct. Revised May 2000.” London: GDC.
  169. General Dental Council (GDC). 1997. “The First Five Years: The Undergraduate Dental Curriculum.” London: GDC.
  170. Genest-Beucher, Sebastien, Graillon Nicolas, Bruneau Stéphane, Benzaquen Michael, and Laurent Guyot. 2018. “Does Mandibular Third Molar Have an Impact on Dental Mandibular Anterior Crowding? A Literature Review.” J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 119(3): 204-7.
  171. Ghaeminia, Hossei, Gerlach Nicolaas L., Hoppenreijs Theo J., Kicken Marc, Dings Jeroen P., Borstlap Wilfred A., de Haan Thomas, Bergé Stefaan J., Meijer Gert J., and Thomas J. Maal. 2015. “Clinical Relevance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Multicentre, Randomised, Controlled Trial.” J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 43(10): 2158-67.
  172. Ghaeminia, Hossei, Meijer Gert J., Soehardi Antariksa, Borstlap Wilfred A., Mulder Jan, Vlijmen Olivier J., Bergé Stefaan J., and Thomas J. Maal. 2011. “The Use of Cone Beam CT for the Removal of Wisdom Teeth Changes the Surgical Approach Compared with Panoramic Radiography: A Pilot Study.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 40(8): 834-9.
  173. Glare, Paul, Aubrey Karin R., and Myles Paul S. 2019. “Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain After Surgery.” Lancet. 393(10180): 1537‐46.
  174. Gold, Michael S., and Gerald F. Gebhart. 2010. “Nociceptor Sensitization in Pain Pathogenesis.” Nat Med. 16(11): 1248‐57.
  175. Goldenberg, Neil A., Jacobson Linda, and Marilyn J. Manco-Johnson. 2005. “Duration of Platelet Dysfunction after a 7-day Course of Ibuprofen.” Ann Intern Med. 142(7): 506-9.
  176. Gooris, Christel, Årtun Jon, and Donald Joondeph. 1990. “Eruption of Mandibular Third Molars After Second-Molar Extractions: A Radiographic Study.” Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 98(2): 161-7.
  177. Graham, Gary G., Scott Kieran F., and Richard O. Day. 2005. “Tolerability of Paracetamol.” Drug Safety. 28, 227-40.
  178. Graham, Robin Mancher Michelle, Miller Wolman Dianne, Greenfield Sheldon, and Earl Steinberg, edited by. 2011. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust. Washington: National Academies Press.
  179. Granone, Franco. 1989. Trattato di ipnosi. Torino: Utet.
  180. Griffin, Tony. 2014. “Anaphylaxis in General Dental Practice.” Prim Dent J. 3(1): 36-8.
  181. Grover, Pushpiner S., and Lewis Lorton. 1985. “The Incidence of Unerupted Permanent Teeth and Related Clinical Cases.” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 59(4): 420-5.
  182. Guarda Nardini, Luca. 2001. “La semeiotica dell’articolazione temporo-mandibolare rivisitata.” Reumatismo. 53(3): 244-9.
  183. Guyton, Arthur C., and John E. Hall. 2003. Fisiologia medica. Napoli: Edises.
  184. Haas, Daniel A. 2002. “An Update on Analgesics for the Management of Acute Postoperative Oral Surgical Pain.” J Can Dent Assoc. 68: 476-82.
  185. Haas, Daniel, and Diana Lennon. 1995. “A 21 Year Retrospective Study of Reports of Paresthesia Following Local Anaesthetic Administration.” J Can Dent Assoc. 61(4): 319-30.
  186. Haas, Leticia F., Dutra Kamile, Porporatti André L., Mezzomo Loius A., Canto Graziela, Flores-Mir Carlos, and Marcio Corrêa. 2016. “Anatomical Variations of Mandibular Canal Detected by Panoramic Radiography and CT: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 45(2): 20150310.
  187. Haavikko, Kaarina, Altonen Mikko, and Katariina Mattila. 1978. “Predicting Angulation Development and Eruption of the Lower Third Molar.” Angle Orthod. 48(1): 39-48.
  188. Halpern, Leslie R., and Thomas B. Dodson. 2007. “Does Prophylactic Administration of Systemic Antibiotics Prevent Postoperative Inflammatory Complications after Third Molar Surgery?” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 65(2): 177-85.
  189. Handelman, Stanley L., Black Peter M., Desjardins Paul, Gatlin Lonny, and Leroy Simmons. 1993. “Removal of Impacted Third Molars by Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery and General Dentistry Residents.” Spec Care Dentist. 13(3): 122-6.
  190. Hardy, James D., Harold G. Wolff, and Helen Goodell. 1950. “Experimental Evidence on the Nature of Cutaneous Hyperalgesia.” J Clin Invest. 29(1): 115-40.
  191. Hattab, Faiez N. 1997. “Positional Changes and Eruption of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars in Young Adults. A Radiographic 4-year Follow-up Study.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 84(6): 604-8.
  192. Herrera-Briones, Francisco J., Prados Sánchez Estrella, Reyes Botella Candela, and Manuel Vallecillo Capilla. 2013. “Update on the Use of Corticosteroids in Third Molar Surgery: Systematic Review of the Literature.” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 116(5): e342-e351.
  193. Heurich, Thomas, Ziegler Christoph Mike, Steveling Helmut, Wörtche René, Mühling Joachim, and Stefan Hassfeld. 2002. “Digital Volume Tomography--An Extension to the Diagnostic Procedures Available for Application Before Surgical Removal of Third Molars.” Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 6(6): 427-32.
  194. Hill, C.M., and R.V. Walker. 2001. “Salivary Cortisol Determinations and Self-Rating Scales in the Assessment of Stress in Patients Undergoing the Extraction of Wisdom Teeth.” Br Dent J. 191(9): 513-5.
  195. Hillerup, Søren, and Rigmor Jensen. 2006. “Nerve Injury Caused by Mandibular Block Analgesia.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 35(5): 437-43.
  196. Hirsch, Ariel, Shteiman S., Boyan Barbara D., and Zvi Schwartz. 2003. “Use of Orthodontic Treatment as an Aid to Third Molar Extraction: A Method for Prevention of Mandibular Nerve Injury and Improved Periodontal Status.” Journal of Periodontology. 74(6): 887-92.
  197. Hooley, James R. 1983. A Self-instructional Guide to Oral Surgery in General Dentistry. Seattle: Stoma Press.
  198. Horiot, Jean-Claude, Bone Marie C., Ibrahim Eslam, and Joseph R. Castro. 1981. “Systematic Dental Management in Head and Neck Irradiation.” Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 7: 1025-9.
  199. Horstkotte, Dieter, et al. 2015. “The Task Force for the Management of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology.” European Heart Journal. 36: 3075-123.
  200. Işeri, Haluk, and Ayşegül Köklü. 1989. “Prediction of Mandibular Growth Rotation.” Turk Ortodonti Derg. 2(1): 73-80.
  201. Ishak, Mohd H., Zhun O.C., Shaari Ramizu, Rahman Shaifulizan A., Hasan Nazmul, and Mohammad K. Alam. 2014. “Panoramic Radiography in Evaluating the Relationship of Mandibular Canal and Impacted Third Molars in Comparison with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.” Mymensingh Med J. 23(4): 781-6.
  202. J”Èwiak, Marta, and Jerzy Nowak. 2014. “Paracetamol: Mechanism of Action, Applications and Safety Concern.” Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica Ñ Drug Research. 71(1): 11-23.
  203. Jackson Douglass L., Moore Paul A., and Kenneth M. Hargreaves. 1989. “Preoperative Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Medication for the Prevention of Postoperative Dental Pain.” J Am Dent Assoc. 119: 641-7.
  204. Jacobs, Stanley G. 1999. “Radiographic Localization of Unerupted Maxillary Anterior Teeth Using the Vertical Tube Shift Technique: The History and Application of the Method with Some Case Reports.” Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 116(4): 415-23.
  205. Jaju, Prashant P. 2010. “Localization of Mandibular Canal by Buccal Object Rule.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 109(6): 799.
  206. Jakovljevic, Aleksandar, Andric Miroslav, Knezevic Aleksandra, and Biljana Milicic. 2017. “Herpesviral-bacterial Co-infection in Mandibular Third Molar Pericoronitis.” Clin Oral Investig. 21(5): 1639-46.
  207. Jerjes, Waseem, El-Maaytah Mohammed, Swinson Brian, Banu Bilquis, Upile Tahwinder, D’Sa Sapna, Al-Khawalde Mohammed, Chaib Boussad, and Colin Hopper. 2006. “Experience Versus Complication Rate in Third Molar Surgery.” Head Face Med. 2(1): 14.
  208. Jerjes, Waseem, Upile Tahwinder, Kafas Panagiotis, Abbas Syedda, Rob Jubli, McCarthy Eileen, Peter McCarthy, and Colin Hopper. 2009. “Third Molar Surgery: The Patient’s and the Clinician’s Perspective.” Int Arch Med. 2: 32.
  209. Jeske, Arthur, and George D. Suchko. 2003. “Lack of Scientific Basis for Routine Discontinuation of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy Before Dental Treatment.” J Am Dent Assoc. 134: 1492-7.
  210. Joyston-Bechal, Simon. 1992. “Prevention of Dental Diseases Following Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.” Int Dent J. 42: 47-53.
  211. Juan, Heinz. 1978. “Mechanism of Action of Bradykinin-induced Release of Prostaglandin E. Naunyn Schmiedebergs.” Arch Pharmacol. 9: 403-9.
  212. Jung, Carl G. 1967. Man and His Symbols. London: Aldus Books Limited.
  213. Kalantar Motamedi, Mahmood R., Heidarpour Majid, Siadat Sara, Kalantar Motamedi Alimohammad, and Aliakbar A. Bahreman. 2015. “Orthodontic Extraction of Highrisk Impacted Mandibular Third Molars in Close Proximity to the Mandibular Canal: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 73(9): 1672-85.
  214. Kämmerer, Peer W., Adubae Ahmed, Buttchereit Ingo, Thiem Daniel G.E., Daubländer Monika, and Bernhard Frerich. 2018. “Prospective Clinical Study Comparing Intraligamentary Anesthesia and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block for Extraction of Posterior Mandibular Teeth.” Clin Oral Investig. 22(3): 1469-75.
  215. Kamran Bokhari, Syed, Kamran Bokhari Zaheer, and Mohammed Ibrahim. 2013. “Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia. A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.” J Int Oral Heal. 5(1): 43-7.
  216. Kandel, Eric R., and James H. Schwartz. 2014. Principi di neuroscienze. Milano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
  217. Kang, Young-Ho, Hoo Jeon Soung, Park Joo-Young, Chung Jong-Hoon, Choung Yun-Hoon, Choung Han-Wool, Kim Eun-Suk, and Pill-Hoon Choung. 2011. “Platelet-rich Fibrin Is a Bioscaffold and Reservoir of Growth Factors for Tissue Regeneration.” Tissue engineering. 17(3-4): 349-59.
  218. Katsarou, Thomai, Kapsalas Andreas, Souliou Christina, Stefaniotis Theodoros, and Demos Kalyvas. 2019. “Pericoronitis: A Clinical and Epidemiological Study in Greek Military Recruits.” J Clin Exp Dent. 11(2): 133-7.
  219. Kenneth H. Burrel. 1988. “Hemostatics, Astringents, Gingival displacement Products and Antiseptics.” In ADA/PDR Guide to Dental Therapeutics. Chicago: American Dental Association.
  220. Keur, Johannes J. 1986. “Radiographic Localization Techniques.” Aust Dent J. 31: 86-90.
  221. Khan, Aliya A., Morrison Archie, Kendler David L., Rizzoli Rene, Hanley David A., Felsenberg Dieter, McCauley Laurie K., O’Ryan Felice, Reid Ian R., Ruggiero Salvatore L., Taguchi Akira, Tetradis Sotirios, Watts Nelson B., Brandi Maria Luisa, Peters Edmund, Guise Teresa, Eastell Richard, Cheung Angela M., Morin Suzanne N., Masri Basel, Cooper Cyrus, Morgan Sarah L., Obermayer-Pietsch Barbara, Langdahl Bente L., Al Dabagh Rana, Davison Shawn, Sándor George K., Josse Robert G., Bhandari Mohit, El Rabbany Mohamed, Pierroz Dominique D., Sulimani Riad, Saunders Deborah P., Brown Jacques P., and Juliet Compston. 2017. “International Task Force on Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. Case-based Review of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) and Application of the International Recommendations for Management from the International Task Force on ONJ.” J Clin Densitom. 20: 8-24.
  222. Kieser, Jules A., Paulin Mike, and Brad Law. 2004. “Intrabony Course of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve in the Edentulous Mandible.” in Clin Anat. 17(2): 107-11.
  223. Kim, Jin-Cheol, Choi Seong-Seok, Wang Soon-Joo, and Seong-Gon Kim. 2006. “Minor Complications after Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: Type, Incidence, and Possible Prevention.” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology. 102(2): 4-11.
  224. Kim, Tae-Woo, Årtun Jon, Behbehani Faraj, and Flavia Artese. 2003. “Prevalence of Third Molar Impaction in Orthodontic Patients Treated Non Extraction And With Extraction of 4 Premolars.” Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 123(2): 138-45.
  225. Kirk, Dennis G., Liston Peter N., Tong Darryl C., and Robert Love. 2007. “Influence of Two Different Flap Designs on Incidence of Pain, Swelling, Trismus, and Alveolar Osteitis in the Week Following Third Molar Surgery.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 104(1): e1-6.
  226. Kobayashi, Yasuyoshi, Hiraga Toru, Ueda Akimi, Wang Liyang, Masumoto-Nakano Michiyo, Hata Kenji, Yatani Hirofumi, and Toshiyuki Yoneda. 2010. “Zoledronic Acid Delays Wound Healing of the Tooth Extraction Socket, Inhibits Oral Epithelial Cell Migration, and Promotes Proliferation and Adhesion to Hydroxyapatite of Oral Bacteria, Without Causing Osteonecrosis of the Jaw, in Mice.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. 28(2): 165-75.
  227. Koga, Daniel H., Salvajoli João V., and Fabio A. Alves. 2008. “Dental Extractions and Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Oncology: Review of the Literature.” Oral Dis. 14: 40-4.
  228. Kojima, Yuka, Yanamoto Souichi, Masahiro Umeda, Kawashita Yumiko, Saito Izumi, Hasegawa Takumi, Komori Takahide, Ueda Nobuhiro, Kirita Tadaaki, Yamada Shin-ichi, Kurita Hiroshi, Senga Yasuko, Shibuya Yasuyuki, and Hiroshi Iwai. 2017. “Relationship Between Dental Status and Development of Osteoradionecrosis of the Jaw: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 124: 139-45.
  229. Komerik, Nurgul, Muglali Mehtap, Tas Betul, and Umit Selcuk. 2014. “Difficulty of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Tooth Removal: Predictive Ability of Senior Surgeons and Residents.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(6): 1062.e1-6.
  230. Kongsgaard, Ulf E., and Mads U. Werner. 2015. “Tachyphylaxis to Local Anaesthetics. What is the Clinical Evidence? A Systematic Review.” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 60(1): 6-14.
  231. Kositbowornchai, Suwadee, Densiri-Aksorn Worawit, and Piumthanaroj P. 2010. “Ability of Two Radiographic Methods to Identify the Closeness Between the Mandibular Third Molar Root and the Inferior Alveolar Canal: A Pilot Study.” Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 39(2): 79-84.
  232. Kowalski, Marek L., Borowiec Maciej, Kurowski Marcin, and Rafal Pawliczak. 2007. “Alternative Splicing of Cyclooxygenase-1 Gene: Altered Expression in Leucocytes from Patients with Bronchial Asthma and Association with Aspirin-induced 15-HETE Release.” Allergy. 62(6): 628-34.
  233. Koyuncu, Banu Ö., Zeytinoğlu Mert, Tetik Ayhan, Gomel M.M. 2015. “Effect of Tube Drainage Compared with Conventional Suturing on Postoperative Discomfort after Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars.” Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 53(1): 63-7.
  234. Krausz, Amir A., Machtei E.E., and Peled Mar. 2005. “Effects of Lower Third Molar Extraction on At-tachment Level and Alveolar Bone Height of the Adjacent Second Molar.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 34(7): 756-60.
  235. Krishanappa, Salian, and Haszelini Hassan. 2018. “Interventions for Treating Post-extraction Bleeding.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3(3): CD011930.
  236. Kruger, Gustav O. 1984. Textbook of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. St. Louis: Mosby.
  237. Kubo, Miyoko, Van de Water Livingston, Piantefaber Lisa C., Mosesson Michael W., Simon Marcia, Tonnesen Marcia G., Taichman Lorne, and Richard A.F. Clark. 2001. “Fibrinogen and Fibrin Are Ante-adesive for Keraticocytes: A Mechanism for Fibrin Eschar Slough During Would Repair.” J Invest Dermatol. 117(6): 1369-81.
  238. Kugelberg, Carl F. 1990. “Periodontal Healing Two and Four Years After Impacted Lower Third Molar Surgery.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 19(6): 341-5.
  239. Kugelberg, Carl F. 1990. “Periodontal Healing Two and Four Years After Impacted Lower Third Molar Surgery. A Comparative Retrospective Study.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 19(6): 341-5.
  240. Kugelberg, Carl F., Ahlström Ulf, Ericson Sune, Hugoson Anders, and Sven Kvint. 1991. “Periodontal Healing After Impacted Third Molar Surgery.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 20(1): 18-24.
  241. Kumar, Barun, Bhate Kalyani, Dolas R.S., Kumar Sn Santhosh, Waknis Pushkar. 2016. “Comparative Evaluation of Immediate postoperative Sequelae after Surgical Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar with or without Tube Drain-Split-Mouth Study.” J Clin Diagn Res. 10(12): ZC46-ZC49.
  242. Landi, Luca, Manicone Paolo F., Piccinelli Stefano, Raia Alessandro, and Roberto Raia. 2010. “A Novel Surgical Approach to Impacted Mandibular Third Molars to Reduce the Risk of Paresthesia: A Case Series.” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 68(5): 969-74.
  243. Langlade, Michel. 1986. Diagnosi ortodontica. Milano: Scienza e Tecnica Dentistica Edizioni Internazionali.
  244. Laskaris, George. 1995. Malattie del cavo orale. traduzione di Alessandra Taglienti. Stuttgard: George Thieme Verlag.
  245. Laskaris, George. 1995. Malattie del cavo orale. traduzione di Alessandra Taglienti. Stuttgard: George Thieme Verlag.
  246. Laskin, Daniei M. 1971. “Evaluation of the Third Molar Problem.” J Am Dent Assoc. 82(4): 824-30.
  247. Laskin, Daniel M. 1985. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. volume 2. St. Louis: Mosby.
  248. Leung, Lawrence. 2012. “From Ladder to Platform: A New Concept for Pain Management.” J Prim Health Care. 4(3): 254-8.
  249. Leung, Wa K., Theilade Else, Comfort Margaret B., and Pak-Leong Lim. 1993. “Microbiology of the Pericoronal Pouch in Mandibular Third Molar Pericoronitis.” Oral Microbiol Immunol. 8(5): 306-12.
  250. Levi Montalcini, Rita. 2007. “Nerve Growth Factor.” Enciclopedia della Scienza e della Tecnica. 2: 177-88.
  251. Lewis, Thomas. 1942. Pain. New York: MacMillan.
  252. Lindhe, Jan, Lang, Niklaus P., and Thorkild Karring. 2012. Parodontologia clinica e implantologia orale. Milano: Edi-Ermes.
  253. Lipton, James A., Ship Jonathan A., and Dina Larach-Robinson. 1993. “Estimated Prevalence and Distribution of Reported Orofacial Pain in The United States.” J Am Dent Assoc. 124(10): 115-21.
  254. Liu, Frederick, and Andrew Steinkeler. 2013. “Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders.” Dent Clin North Am. 57(3): 465-79.
  255. Lodi G, Figini L, Sardella A, Carrassi A, Del Fabbro M, Furness S. 2012. “Antibiotics to Prevent Complications Following Tooth Extractions.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 11(11).
  256. Lodi, Giovanni, Azzi Lorenzo, Varoni Elena M., Pentenero Monica, Del Fabbro Massimo, Carrassi Antonio, Sardella Andrea, and Maddalena Manfredi. 2021. “Antibiotics to Prevent Complications Following Tooth Extractions.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2(2): CD003811.
  257. Lorenzi, Paola, et al. 2008. “Raccomandazioni per la prevenzione ed il trattamento delle reazioni anafilattiche-anafilattoidi in odontoiatria.” <http://www.amalp.it/files/2003_ ainos_allergie.pdf> (06/06/2008).
  258. Luiz Rosa, Adalberto, Gomes Carneiro Marilia, Lavrador Marco Antonio, and Arthur Belém Novaes Jr. 2002. “Influence of Flap Design on Periodontal Healing of Second Molars After Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 93(4): 404-7.
  259. MacGregor, A.J. 1985. The Impacted Lower Wisdom Tooth. New York: Oxford University Press.
  260. Macleod, Gordon A., Ashford Bruce, Voltz Matthew, Williams Brogan, Cramond Tess, Grota Lee J., and Judy M. Simpson. 2002. “Paracetamol Versus Paracetamol-codeine in the Treatment of Postoperative Dental Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Prospective Trial.” Aust Dent J. 47(2): 147-51.
  261. Malamed, Stanley F. 1993. “Managing Medical Emergencies.” J Am Dent Assoc. 124: 40-53.
  262. Malamed, Stanley F. 2004. Handbook of Local Anesthesia. St Louis: Mosby.
  263. Malamed, Stanley F. 2010. “Knowing Your Patients.” J Am Dent Assoc. 141(1): 3S-7S.
  264. Malkawi, Ziad, Al-Omiri Mahmoud K., and Ameen Khraisat. 2011. “Risk Indicators of Postoperative Complications Following Surgical Extraction of Lower Third Molars.” Med Princ Pract. 20(4): 321-25.
  265. Manani, Giovanni, et al. 1995. “Premedication with Chlordemethyldiazepam and Anxiolytic Effect of Diazepeam in Implantology.” Anesth Prog. 42(3-4): 107-12.
  266. Manani, Giovanni, et al. 2003a. “La risposta cardiocircolatoria all’induzione dell’anestesia locoregionale.” J Dent Anaesth. 30(17).
  267. Manani, Giovanni, et al. 2003b. “Relazioni tra paure comuni e paura da dentista. Indagine epidemiologica su 1000 residenti in Alto Adige.” Giorn Anest Stomatol. 22: 47.
  268. Manani, Giovanni, et al. 2005. “Analysis of an Anxiolytic Technique Applied in 1179 Patients Undergoing Oral Surgery.” Minerva Stomatol. 54(10): 551-68.
  269. Manani, Giovanni, Zanette Gastone, Bacci Christian, e Enrico Facco. 2012. “Stato attuale della sedazione cosciente in odontoiatria.” Dental Cadmos. 80(7): 357-69.
  270. Manani, Giovanni. 1988. “Correlazione tra ansia e dolore nel paziente odontoiatrico ambulatoriale.” Giorn Anest Stomatol. 17(7).
  271. Manani, Giovanni. 2011. Anestesia Odontoiatrica ed Emergenze. Napoli: Idelson-Gnocchi.
  272. Mansfield, Jillian, and John H. Campbell. 2012. “Molecular Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes Identifies Potentially Periodontal Pathogenic Bacteria and Archaea in the Plaque of Partially Erupted Third Molars.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 70(7): 1507-14.
  273. Mantovani, Edoardo, Arduino Paolo G., Schierano Gianmario, Ferrero Luca, Gallesio Giorgia, Mozzati Marco, Russo Andrea, Scully Crispian, and Stefano Carossa. 2014. “A Split-mouth Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Performance of Piezosurgery Compared with Traditional Technique in Lower Wisdom Tooth Removal.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(10): 1890-7.
  274. Markiewicz, Michael R., Brady Mark F., Ding Eric L., and Thomas Dodson. 2008. “Corticosteroids Reduce Postoperative Morbidity after Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(9): 1881-94.
  275. Marques, José D., Pié-Sánchez Jordi, Figueiredo Rui, Valmaseda-Castellón Eduard, and Cosme Gay-Escoda. 2014. “Effect of the Local Administration of Betamethasone on Pain, Swelling and Trismus after Impacted Lower Third Molar Extraction. A Randomized, Triple Blinded, Controlled Trial.” Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 19(1): e49-54.
  276. Martinez Lacasa, Javier, et al. 2003. “A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Comparative Phase III Clinical Trial of Pharmacokinetically Enhance Amoxicillin/ Clavulanate 2000/125as Prophylaxis or as Treatment Versus Placebo for Infectious and Inflammatory Morbidity After Third Mandibular Removal.” Program and Abstract of the 43rd InterScience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemiotherapy. Chicago. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC.
  277. Mattia, Consalvo and Flaminia Coluzzi. 2009. “What Anesthesiologists Should Know About Paracetamol (Acetaminophen).” Minerva Anestesiol. 75(11): 644-53.
  278. Matzen, Louise H., and Erwin Berkhout. 2009. “Cone Beam CT Imaging of the Mandibular Third Molar: A Position Paper Prepared by the European Academy of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (EADMFR).” Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 48(5): 20190039.
  279. Matzen, Louise H., Christensen Justin, Hintze Hanne, Schou S., and Ann Wenzel. 2013. “Influence of Cone Beam CT on Treatment Plan Before Surgical Intervention of Mandibular Third Molars and Impact of Radiographic Factors on Deciding on Coronectomy vs Surgical Removal.” Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 42(1): 98870341.
  280. Mauceri, Nicola, Gruppuso Valentina, Ferlisi Annalisa, Ettari Vera, Favuzza Filippo, Gagliano Fabio, e Giuseppe Gallina. 2006. “Approccio odontoiatrico al paziente emofilico.” Acta Pediatrica Mediterranea. 22: 93-5.
  281. Maurer, Peter, Kriwalsky Marcus S., Block Veras Rafael, Brandt Jörg, and Christian Heiss. 2007. “Auflichtmikroskopische Untersuchungen an der Kaninchenkalotte nach ultraschallgestützter und konventioneller Osteotomie [Light microscopic examination of rabbit skulls following conventional and Piezosurgery osteotomy].” Biomed Tech (Berl). 52(5): 351-5.
  282. McCoy, Michael. 2012. “Complications of Retention: Pathology Associated with Retained Third Molars.” Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 20(2): 177-95.
  283. McMahon, Stephen B., and Martin Koltzenburg. 1990. “The Changing Role of Primary Afferent Neurones in Pain.” Pain. 43(3): 269-72.
  284. Mead, Sterling V. 1928. Diseases of the Mouth. St. Louis: Mosby.
  285. Melini, Matteo, Forni Andrea, Cavallin Francesco, Parotto Matteo, e Gastone Zanette. 2020. “Conscious Sedation for the Management of Dental Anxiety in Third Molar Extraction Surgery: A Systematic Review.” BMC Oral Health. 20(1): 155.
  286. Melmon, Kenneth L., Webster Marion E., Goldfinger Stephen E., and J. Edwin Seegmiller. 1967. “The Presence of a Kinin in Inflammatory Synovial Effusion from Arthritides of Varying Etiologies.” Arthrtitis Rheum. 10(1): 13-20.
  287. Melzack, Ronald, and Patrick Wall. 1965. “Pain Mechanisms: A New Theory.” Science. 150(3699): 971-9.
  288. Menon RK, Gopinath D, Li KY, Leung YY, Botelho MG. 2019. “Does The Use of Amoxicillin/ Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Third Molar Surgery Reduce the Risk of Postoperative Infection? A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 48(2): 263-73.
  289. Menziletoglu, Dilek, Tassoker Melek, Isik Kubilay, and Alparslan Esen. 2019. “The Assesment of Relationship Between the Angulation of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Teeth and the Thickness of Lingual Bone: A Prospective Clinical Study.” Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 24(1): e130-5.
  290. Miller, Craig S., Nummikoski Pirkka V., Barnett Douglas A., and Robert P. Langlais. 1990. “Cross-sectional Tomography. A Diagnostic Technique for Determining the Buccolingual Relationship of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars and the Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 70(6): 791-7.
  291. Miloro, Michael, edited by. 2004. Peterson’s Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Ontario: Hamilton.
  292. Milstein, Dan, Lindeboom Jerone, and Can Ince. 2011. “The Infuence of Zoledronic Acid and Cyclophosphamide on Microcirculation Regeneration in Healing Oral Mucosal Faps.” Archives of Oral Biolog. 56(6): 599-606.
  293. Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca. “Decreto Ministeriale 28 novembre 2000. Determinazione delle classi delle lauree specialistiche.” <http://www.miur.it/0002Unive r/0021Offert/0094Classi/index_cf2.htm> (23/01/2001).
  294. Ministero della Salute, Dipartimento della sanità pubblica e dell’innovazione. 2014. “Raccomandazioni per la promozione della salute orale, la prevenzione delle patologie orali e la terapia odontostomatologica nei pazienti adulti con malattia neoplastica.” < https://www. salute.gov.it/portale/news/p3_2_1_1_1.jsp?lingua=italiano&menu=notizie&p=dalministe ro&id=1530> (01/04/2014)
  295. Ministero della Salute. “Raccomandazioni per l’impiego corretto delle apparecchiature TC volumetriche Cone beam.” <https://www.ordinemedici.al.it/index.php/ ecm/54-sanitari-convenzionati-e-liberi-professionisti/professione-odontoiatra/451- 122011-raccomandazioni-per-limpiego-corretto-delle-apparecchiature-tc-volumetricheqcone- beamq> (29/05/2010).
  296. Ministero della Salute. 2010. “Raccomandazioni per l’impiego corretto delle apparecchiature TC volumetriche Cone Beam.” <https://www.ordinemedici.al.it/index.php/ ecm/54-sanitari-convenzionati-e-liberi-professionisti/professione-odontoiatra/451- 122011-raccomandazioni-per-limpiego-corretto-delle-apparecchiature-tc-volumetricheqcone- beamq> (29/05/2010).
  297. Ministero della Salute. 2014. “Raccomandazioni cliniche in odontostomatologia.” <https:// www.salute.gov.it/portale/news/p3_2_1_1_1.jsp?lingua=italiano&menu=notizie&p= null&id=3047>
  298. Ministero della Salute. 2017. “Linee guida nazionali per la diagnostica radiologica odontoiatrica in età evolutiva.” < https://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pubblicazioni_2690_allegato.pdf>
  299. Ministero della Salute. 2017. “Raccomandazioni cliniche in odontostomatologia.” <https:// www.salute.gov.it/portale/news/p3_2_1_1_1.jsp?lingua=italiano&menu=notizie&p=n ull&id=3047> (13/09/2017).
  300. Ministero della Salute. 2017. “Raccomandazioni cliniche in odontostomatologia.” <https:// www.salute.gov.it/portale/news/p3_2_1_1_1.jsp?lingua=italiano&menu=notizie&p=n ull&id=3047> (13/09/2017).
  301. Ministero della Salute. 2018. “Legge 22 dicembre 2017, n. 219. Norme in materia di consenso informato e di disposizioni anticipate di trattamento.” <https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/ eli/id/2018/1/16/18G00006/sg> (16/01/2018).
  302. Ministero della Salute. 2020. “Decreto Legislativo 31 luglio 2020, n. 101.” <https://www. gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2020/08/12/20G00121/sg> (12/08/2020).
  303. Ministro dell’Università e della ricerca. 2008. “Ordinamento didattico Classe LM/46. Odontoiatria e Protesi Dentaria. Modello Adeguato all’Unione Europea.” <http:// attiministeriali.miur.it/media/155598/dmcdl_magistrale.pdf>
  304. Mjör, Ivar A., e Ole Fejerskov. 2000. Embriologia e istologia del cavo orale. Milano: Edi. Ermes. Slavkin, Harold C., and Lucien A. Bavetta, edited by. 1972. Developmental Aspects of Oral Biology. New York: Academic Press.
  305. Montagna, Fabrizio. 1998. Il trattamento odontoiatrico del paziente con patologia cardiovascolare. Roma: Edizioni Promoass.
  306. Montagna, Fabrizio. 1999. Il trattamento odontoiatrico del paziente con patologie sistemiche. Roma: Edizioni Promoass.
  307. Montagna, Fabrizio. 2001. Il trattamento odontoiatrico del paziente con allergia, patologia gastrointestinale e renale. Roma: Edizioni Promoass.
  308. Montagna, Fabrizio. 2011. I quaderni della professione: il dolore orofacciale. Milano: Promoass.
  309. Montebugnoli, Lucio, Pelliccioni Gian Andrea, e Claudio Borghi. 1990. “Effetti del vasocostrittore durante l’anestesia locale [Effects of vasoconstrictors during local anesthesia].” Dent Cadmos. 58(9): 62-71.
  310. Montebugnoli, Lucio. 2012. “Gestione ottimale del paziente a elevato rischio emorragico e nuove prospettive.” Dental Clinics. 27-34.
  311. Montevecchi, Marco, Parenti Serena, Checchi Vittorio, Palumbo B., Checchi Luigi, and Giulio Alessandri Bonetti. 2014. “Periodontal Healing After ‘Orthodontic Extraction’ of Mandibular Third Molars: A Retrospective Cohort Study.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 43(9): 1137.
  312. Moore, Paul A., and Hersh Elliot V. 2010. “Local Anesthetics: Pharmacology and Toxicity.” Dental Clinics of North America. 54(4): 587-99.
  313. Moore, Paul A., and Hersh Elliot V. 2013. “Combining Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen for Acute Pain Management after Third-molar Extractions: Translating Clinical Research to Dental Practice.” J Am Dent Assoc. 144(8): 898-908.
  314. Morant, Ricardo D., Eleazer Paul D., Scheetz James P., and Allan G. Farman. 2001. “Array- Projection Geometry and Depth Discrimination with Tuned-Aperture Computed Tomography for Assessing the Relationship Between Tooth Roots and the Inferior Alveolar Canal.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 91: 252-9.
  315. Moreno-Fernández, Ana Maria, Jiménez-Castellanos Emilio, Iglesias-Linares Alejandro, Bueso- Madrid Débora, Fernández-Rodríguez Ana, and Manuel de Miguel. 2017. “Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Temporomandibular Disorders with Muscular Pain. A Review.” Mod Rheumatol. 27(2): 210-6.
  316. Morimoto, Yoshinari, Niwa Hitohsi, and Kazuo Minematsu. 2008. “Hemostatic Management of Tooth Extractions in Patients on Oral Antithrombotic Therapy.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(1): 51-7.
  317. Mozzati, Marco, Arata Valentina, and Giorgia Gallesio. 2013. “Tooth Extraction in Osteoporotic Patients Taking Oral Bisphosphonates.” Osteoporosis International. 24(5): 1707-12.
  318. Mozzati, Marco, e Renato Pol. 2009. Valutazione sistemica del paziente e principali protocolli di trattamento in chirurgia stomatologica biologicamente guidata. Torino: Utet.
  319. Murphy, Thomas R. 1964. “Reduction of Dental Arch by Approximal Attriction.” Br Dent J. 16(1): 483-8.
  320. Murray, Jhon B. 1969. “The Puzzle of Pain.” Percept Mot Skills. 28(3): 887-99.
  321. Naichuan, Su, van Wijk Arjen, Berkhout Erwin, Sanderink Gerard, De Lange Jan, Wang Hang, and Geert J.M.G. van der Heijden. 2017. “Predictive Value of Panoramic Radiography for Injury of Inferior Alveolar Nerve After Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 75(4): 663-79.
  322. Nardi, Cosimo, Nardi Francesco, e Stefano Colagrande. 2013. Imaging dentale e oro-maxillofacciale. Roma: Verduci.
  323. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. 2007. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
  324. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). 2019. “Sedation in Under 19s: Using Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures (CG112).” <https://www.nice.org.uk/ guidance/cg112/evidence/full-guideline-136287325>
  325. Neugebauer, Joerg, Shirani Reihaneh, Mischkowski Robert A., Ritter Lutz, Scheer Martin, Keeve Erwin, and Joachim E. Zöller. 2008. “Comparison of Cone-Beam Volumetric Imaging and Combined Plain Radiographs for Localization of the Mandibular Canal Before Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molars.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 105: 633-42.
  326. Newton, Jonathon T., and Dave J. Buck. 2000. “Anxiety and Pain Measures in Dentistry: A Guide to Their Quality and Application.” J Am Dent Assoc. 131: 1449-57.
  327. NICE. 2000. “Guidance on the Extraction of Wisdom Teeth.” <https://www.nice.org.uk/ guidance/ta1/chapter/1-guidance>
  328. NICE. 2016. “Prophylactic Removal of Impacted Third Molars.” <https://www.nice.org.uk/ guidance/gid-tag525/documents/final-protocol>
  329. Nitzan, Dorrit W., Keren Timoret, and Yitzhak Marmary. 1981. “Does An Impacted Tooth Cause Root Resorption of the Adjacent One?” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 51(3): 221-4.
  330. Nnoaham, Keleki E., and Jarna Kumbang. 2008. “Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for Chronic Pain.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3. 12(12): CD011927.
  331. O’Riordan, Beth C. 2004. “Intentional Partial Odontectomy of Lower Third Molars.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 98(3): 274-80.
  332. O’Shea, Rheanne M., Corah Norman L., and William A. Ayer. 1984. “Sources of Dentists’ Stress.” J Am Dent Assoc. 109(1): 48-51.
  333. Ogunlewe, Mobolanle O., James Olutayo, Ajuluchukwu Janet, Ladeinde Akinola, Adeyemo Wasiu L., and Olalekan M. Gbotolorun. 2011. “Evaluation of Haemodynamic Changes in Hypertensive Patients During Tooth Extraction Under Local Anaesthesia.” West Indian Med J. 60(1): 91-5.
  334. Okeson, Jeoffrey P. 1995. Orofacial Pains. Batavia: Quintessence.
  335. Old, Lloyd J. 1985. “Tumor necrosis factor (TNF).” Science. 230(4726): 630-2.
  336. Oliveira Mirlany M.M., da Franca Acioly Rodrigo, Dinelly de Souza Dennis, Araújo da Silva Bruno, and Daniel Do Carmo Carvalho. 2019. “Third Molar Displacement into Submandibular Space.” Case Reports in Dentistry. (10): 1-3.
  337. Oosterink, Floor M., de Jongh Ad, and Irene H. Aartman. 2008. “What Are People Afraid of During Dental Treatment? Anxiety-Provoking Capacity of 67 Stimuli Characteristic of the Dental Setting.” Eur J Oral Sci. 116(1): 44-51.
  338. Oosterink, Floor M., de Jongh Ad, and Johan Hoogstraten. 2009. “Prevalence of Dental Fear and Phobia Relative to Other Fear and Phobia Subtypes.” Eur J Oral Sci. 117(2): 135-43.
  339. Orlandini, Guido. 2013. La semeiotica del dolore. Roma: Antonio Delfino.
  340. Palma-Carrió, Cristina, García-Mira Berta, Larrazabal-Morón Carolina, and Miguel Peñarrocha-Diago. 2010. “Radiographic signs associated with inferior alveolar nerve damage following lower third molar extraction.” Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 15(6): e886-90
  341. Pan Xiao-Qing, Gonzalez Jessica A., Chang Shaohua, Chacko Samuel, Wein Alan J., and Anna P. Malykhina. 2010. “Experimental Colitis Triggers the Release of Substance P and Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide in the Urinary Bladder Via TRPV1 Signaling Pathways.” Exp Neurol. 225(2): 262-73.
  342. Panzoni, Enrico. 1986. Chirurgia estrattiva. Milano: Masson.
  343. Panzoni, Enrico. 1986. Chirurgia estrattiva. Milano: Masson.
  344. Park, Wong-John, Park Kyung, Su Shin Kyung, and Eun Joo Choi. 2019. “Post-extraction Pain in the Adjacent Tooth after Surgical Extraction of the Mandibular Third Molar.” Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 19(4): 201.
  345. Pederson, Gordon W. 1988. “Surgical Removal of Tooth.” In Oral Surgery. Gordon W. Pederson (edited by). Philadelphia: WB Saunders.
  346. Pell, Glenn, and Thaddeus Gregory. 1933. “Impacted Third Molars: Classification and Modified Technique for Removal.” The Dent Digest. 39(9): 330-8.
  347. Peng, Kuang-Yao, Tseng Yuen-Chin, Shen E-Chin, Chiu Shian-Chung, Fu Earl, and Yu-Weng Huang. 2001. “Mandibular Second Molar Periodontal Status After Third Molar Extraction.” J Periodontol. 72(12): 1647-51.
  348. Peterson, Larry J. 1993. “Principles of Management of Impacted Teeth.” In Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, edited by James Hupp, Myron Tucker, and Edward Ellis, 184- 213. St. Louis: Mosby.
  349. Pietrokovski, Jaime, and Maury Massler. 1967. “Alveolar Ridge Resorption Following Tooth Extraction.” J Prosthet Dent. 17(1): 21-7.
  350. Pinchi, Vima, e Martina Focardi. 2008. L’autodeterminazione in odontoiatria. L’informazione all’assistito ed il consenso. Roma: Andi Servizi.
  351. Pinchi, Vima, Varvara Giuseppe, Pradella Francesco, Focardi Martina, Donati Michele D., and Gianaristide Norelli. 2014. “Analysis of Professional Malpractice Claims in Implant Dentistry in Italy from Insurance Company Technical Reports, 2006 to 2010.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 29(5): 1177-84.
  352. Pippi, Roberto. 2008. L’uso delle leve in chirurgia orale. Roma: CIC.
  353. Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther, Segelcke Daniel, and Stephan Schugb. 2017. “Postoperative Pain: From Mechanisms to Treatment.” Pain Rep. 2(2): e588.
  354. Pogrel, Anthony M. 2015. “Coronectomy.” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America. 27(3): 373-82.
  355. Pogrel, Anthony M., Dorfman David, and Heshaam Fallah. 2009. “The Anatomic Structure of the Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in the Third Molar Region.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 67(11): 2452-4.
  356. Poldermans, Don, et al. 2009. “Guidelines for preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Perioperative Cardiac Management in Non-cardiac Surgery: The Task Force for Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Perioperative Cardiac Management in NonCardiac Surgery of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and Endorsed by the European Society of Anesthesiology (ESA).” Eur Heart J. 30: 2769-812.
  357. Porges, Stephen W. 1995. “Orienting in a Defensive World: Mammalian Modifications of Our Evolutionary Heritage. A Polyvagal Theory.” Psychophysiology. 32: 301-18.
  358. PROMaF Protocol. “Prevention and Research on Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws.” 2014. <http://www.policlinico.pa.it/portal/pdf/news/2014/PROMaF/ PROMaFxOperatoriSanitari-dic2014.pdf>
  359. Quayle, Alan A, Russell Cynthia, and Brian Hearn. 1987. “Organisms Isolated from Severe Odontogenic Soft Tissue Infections: Their Sensitivities to Cefotetan and Seven Other Antibiotics, and Implications for Therapy and Prophylaxis.” Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 25(1): 34-44.
  360. Quee, Trevor A., Gosselin Denis, Millar E.P., and John W. Stamm. 1985. “Surgical Removal of the Fully Impacted Mandibular Third Molar. The Influence of Flap Design and Alveolar Bone Height on the Periodontal Status of the Second Molar.” J Periodontol. 56(10): 625-30.
  361. Rakprasitkul, Sutas, and Verasak Pairuchvej. 1997. “Mandibular Third Molar Surgery with Primary Closure and Tube Drain.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 26(3): 187-90.
  362. Ramsey, Allison, and Alan H. Brodine. 2019. “Allergy Topics for Dental Practitioners.” Gen Dent. 67(4): 38-45.
  363. Rashad, Ashkan, Sadr-Eshkevari Pooyan, Weuster Markus, Schmitz Inge, Prochnow Nora, and Peter Maurer. 2013. “Material Attrition and Bone Micromorphology after Conventional and Ultrasonic Implant Site Preparation.” Clin Oral Implants Res. 24(A100): 110-4.
  364. Renton, Tara, and Nairn H.F. Wilson. 2016. “Problems with Erupting Wisdom Teeth: Signs, Symptoms, and Management.” Br J Gen Pract. 66(649): e606-8.
  365. Renton, Tara, Smeeton Nigel, and Mark McGurk. 2001. “Factors Predictive of Difficulty of Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.” British Dental Journal. 190(11): 607-10.
  366. Richards, Andrew G. 1952. “Roentgenographic Localization of the Mandibular Canal.” J Oral Surg (Chic). 10: 325-9.
  367. Richardson, Margaret. 1970. “The Early Developmental Position of the Lower Third Molar Relative to Certain Jaw Dimensions.” Angle Orthodontist. 40(3): 226-30.
  368. Richardson, Margaret. 1973. “Development of the Lower Third Molar from 10 to 15 Years.” Angle Orthod. 43(2): 191-3.
  369. Richardson, Margaret. 1977. “The Etiology and Prediction of Mandibular Third Molar Impaction.” Angle Orthod. 47(3): 165-72.
  370. Ricketts, Robert M. 1979. “Studies Leading to the Practice of Abortion of Lower Third Molars.” Dent Clin North Am. 23(3): 393-411.7
  371. Ricketts, Robert M. 1979. “Studies Leading to the Practice of Abortion of Lower Third Molars.” Dent Clin. 23(3): 393-411.
  372. Riedl, Marc A., and Adrian Casillas. 2003. “Adverse Drug Reactions: Types and Treatment Options.” Am Fam Physician. 68(9): 1781-90.
  373. Risløv Staugaard, Søren, Jøssing Marit, and Christina Krohn. 2017. “The Role of Negative and Positive Memories in Fear of Dental Treatment.” J Public Health Dent. 77(1): 39-46.
  374. Romeo, Umberto, Galanakis Alexandros, Lerario Francesco, Daniele Gabriele Maria, Tenore Gianluca, and Gaspare Palaia. 2011. “Subcutaneous Emphysema During Third Molar Surgery: A Case Report.” Brazilian Dental Journal. 22(1): 83-6.
  375. Rood John P., and Basma A. Shehab. 1990. “The Radiological Prediction of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury During Third Molar Surgery.” Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 28: 20-5.
  376. Rosenberg, Morton, Phero James C., and Joseph A. Giovannitti. 2013. “Management of Allergy and Anaphylaxis During Oral Surgery.” Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 25(3): 401-6.
  377. Rounds, Frank W. 1950. “Principles and Technique of Exodontia. Inferior Third Molars.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 3(7): 843-59.
  378. Sackett, David L. 1997. “Evidence-based medicine.” Seminars in Perinatology. 21(1): 3-5.
  379. Sağlam, Ali Alp. 2003. “Effects of Tube Drain with Primary Closure Technique on Postoperative Trismus and Swelling After Removal of Fully Impacted Mandibular Third Molars.” Quintessence Int. 34(2): 143-7.
  380. Sammartino, Gilberto, Gasparro Roberta, Marenzi Gaetano, Trosino Oreste, Mariniello Marco, e Francesco Riccitiello. 2017. “Extraction of Mandibular Third Molars: Proposal of A New Scale of Difficulty.” Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 55(9): 952-7.
  381. Sammartino, Gilberto, Tia Mariano, Gentile Eva, Marenzi Gaetano, and Pier Paolo Claudio. 2009. “Platelet-rich Plasma and Resorbable Membrane for Prevention of Periodontal Defects after Deeply Impacted Lower Third Molar Extraction.” J Oral maxillofac Surg. 67(11): 2369-73.
  382. Sánchez-Torres, Alba, Soler-Capdevila J., Ustrell-Barral M., and Cosme Gay-Escoda. 2019. “Patient, Radiological and Operative Factors Associated with Surgical Difficulty in the Extraction of Third Molars: A Systematic Review.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 49(5): 655-65.
  383. Sandhu, Amneet, Sandhu Sophie, and Kaur Tarinder. 2010. “Comparison of Two Different Flap Designs in the Surgical Removal of Bilateral Impacted Mandibular Third Molars.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 39(11): 1091-6.
  384. Sands, Tami, Pynn Bruce R., and S. Nenniger. 1993. “Third Molar Surgery: Current Concepts and Controversies.” Oral Health. 83(5): 11-4.
  385. Sanmartí-Garcia, Gemma, Valmaseda-Castellón Eduard, and Cosme Gay-Escoda. 2012. “Does Computed Tomography Prevent Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Caused by Lower Third Molar Removal?” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 70(1): 5-11.
  386. Sathasivam, Hans P., Davies Gareth R., Boyd Nicholas M. 2018. “Predictive Factors for Osteoradionecrosis of the Jaws: A Retrospective Study.” Head & Neck. 40(2): 46-54.
  387. Sayd, Shermil, Vyloppilli Suresh, Kumar Krishna, Subash Pramod, Kumar Nithin, and Sarfas Raseel. 2018. “Comparison of the Efficacy of Amoxicillin-clavulanic Acid with Metronidazole to Azithromycin with Metronidazole After Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molar to Prevent Infection.” J Korean Assoc Oral 94 Maxillofac Surg. 44(3): 103-6.
  388. Scardina, Giuseppe Alessandro, Carcerano Antonio, e Pietro Messina. 2007. “Le possibili cause di dolore del distretto oro-facciale.” Recenti progressi in medicina. 98(4): 259-64.
  389. Scarpelli, Marco L., Pinchi Vilma, Fiore Cesare, Massimo Manchisi, e Antonio Federici. 2018. L’odontoiatria e la responsabilità professionale (dopo la legge Gelli/Bianco). Milano: AriesDue.
  390. Scheitler, Lawrence E., Mark W. Tucker, and David C. Christian. 1984. “Adrenal Insufficiency: Report of Case.” Spec Care Dentist. 4(1): 22-4.
  391. Schiødt, Morten, and Niels U. Hermund. 2002. “Management of Oral Disease Prior to Radiation Therapy.” Support Care Cancer. 10(1): 40-3.
  392. Schropp, Lara, Wenzel Ann, Kostopoulos Lambros, and Thorkild Karring. 2003. “Bone Healing and Soft Tissue Contour Changes Following Single-tooth Extraction: A Clinical and Radiographic 12-Month Prospective Study.” Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 23(4): 313-23.
  393. Schulhof, Robert J. 1976. “Third Molars and Orthodontic Diagnosis.” J Clin Orthod. 10(4): 272-81.
  394. Schulhof, Robert J. 1976. “Third Molars and Orthodontic Diagnosis.” J Clin Orthod. 10(4): 272-81.
  395. Schütz, Silvio, Egger Jonas, Kühl Sebastian, Filippi Andrea, and Thomas Lambrecht. 2012. “Intraosseous Temperature Changes During the Use of Piezosurgical Inserts in Vitro.” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 41(11): 1338-43.
  396. Scott, Daniel B. 1981. “Toxicity Caused by Local Anesthetic Drugs.” Br. J. Anaesth. 53: 553-4.
  397. Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP). 2017. “Conscious Sedation in Dentistry. Dental Clinical Guidance.” < https://www.sdcep.org.uk/published-guidance/ conscious-sedation/>
  398. Serratì, Simona, Margheri Francesca, Bruschi Silvia, D’Alessio Silvia, Pucci Marco, Fibbi Gabriella, Tonelli Paolo, and Mario Del Rosso. 2006. “Plasminogen Activators and Inhibitor Type-1 in Alveolar Osteitis.” European Journal of Oral Sciences. 114(6): 500-3.
  399. Seymour, Robin A., Meechan, John G., and Blair. 1985. “An Investigation into Postoperative Pain after Third Molar Surgery Under Local Anaesthesia.” Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 23(6): 410-8.
  400. Shabazfar, Niloufar, Daubländer Monika, Al-Nawas Bilal, and Peer W. Kämmerer. 2014. “Periodontal Intraligament Injection as Alternative to Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block--Meta- Analysis of the Literature From 1979 To 2012.” Clin Oral Investig. 18(2): 351-8.
  401. Shahidi, Shoaleh, Zamiri Barbod, and Pegah Bronoosh. 2013. “Comparison of Panoramic Radiography with Cone Beam CT in Predicting the Relationship of the Mandibular Third Molar Roots to the Alveolar Canal.” Imaging Sci Dent. 43(2): 105-9.
  402. Shakir, Farah, Miloro Michael, Ventura Nina, and Antonia Kolokythas. 2020. “What Information Do Patients Recall from the Third Molar Surgical Consultation?” Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 49(6): 822-6.
  403. Sherrington, Charles S. 1911. The Integrative Action of the Nervous System. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  404. Ship, Irwin I. 1960. “The Response of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure to Dental Stress.” Oral Surg. 13: 499-507.
  405. SICOI (Società Italiana di Chirurgia Orale ed Implantologia). 2011. Manuale di Chirurgia Orale. Milano: Masson.
  406. SIdCO, Società Italiana di Chirurgia Odontostomatologica. 2015. Chirurgia odontostomatologica. Torino: Minerva Medica.
  407. SIdCO. 2015, Chirurgia odontostomatologica. Torino: Minerva Medica.
  408. Simmonds, Daniel L., Botting Regina, and Timothy Hla. 2004. “Cyclooxigenase Isozymes: The Biology of Prostaglandi Sinthesis Ans Inhibition.” Pharmacological Reviews. 56(3): 387-437.
  409. Simons, Estelle, Ardusso Ledit, Bilò Beatrice, El-Gamal Yehia M., Ledford Dennis K., Ring Johannes, Sanchez-Borges Mario, Senna Gian Enrico, Sheikh Aziz, Thong Bernard Y. 2012. “World Allergy Organization Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Anaphylaxis. Update.” Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 12(4): 389-99.
  410. Singh, Pradeep, Ajmera Deepal, Xiao Shan-Shan, Yang Xiao-Zhou, Lui Xiong, and Bin Peng. 2016. “Analysis of Potential Dynamic Concealed Factors in the Difficulty of Lower Third Molar Extraction.” Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 21(6): 713-23.
  411. Sisk, Allen L., Hammer Wade B., Shelton David W., and Edwin Joy. 1986. “Complications Following Removal of Impacted Third Molars: The Role of the Experience of the Surgeon.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 44: 855-9.
  412. Smith, Adam B., Ravikumar Thanjavur S., Kamin Marc, Jordan Donna, Xiang Jim, and Norman Rosenthal, 2004. “Combination of Tramadol Plus Acetaminophen for Post Surgical Pain.” Am Jour Surg. 187(4): 521-7.
  413. Società Italiana di Allergologia ed Immunologia Clinica. 1987. Memorandum sulla diagnosi di allergia/intolleranza a farmaci.
  414. Società Italiana di Chirurgia Orale e Implantologia. 2016. Manuale di chirurgia orale. Milano: Edra Masson.
  415. Sortino, Francesco, and Marco Cicciù. 2011. “Strategies Used to Inhibit Postoperative Swelling Following Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molar.” Dental Research Journal. 8(4): 162-71.
  416. Spinato, Sergio, Rebaudi Alberto, Bernardello Fabio, Bertoldi Carlo, and Davide Zaffe. 2016. “Piezosurgical Treatment of Crestal Bone: Quantitative Comparison of Post-Extractive Socket Outcomes with Those of Traditional Treatment.” Clin Oral Implants Res. 27(3): 361-6.
  417. Stahl, Stephen M. 2016. Neuro psicofarmacologia essenziale. Milano: Edi-Ermes.
  418. Steed, Martin B. 2014. “The Indications for Third-molar Extractions.” Journal of the American Dental Association. 145(6): 570-3.
  419. Strichartz, Gary. 1998. “Neural Physiology and Local Anesthetic Action.” In Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Management of Pain, edited by Michael J. Cousins and Phillip A. Bridenbaugh, 35-54. Philadelphia: Lippincot-Raven.
  420. Strobel, Hermann. 2006. Psicoanalisi del mal di denti. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.
  421. Stübinger, Stefan, Kuttenberger Johannes, Filippi Andreas, Sader Robert, and Hans-Florian Zeilhofer. 2005. “Intraoral Piezosurgery: Preliminary Results of a New Technique.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 63(9): 1283-7.
  422. Suárez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes, Gutwald Ralf Jochen, Reichman Jan, Otero-Cepeda Xose Luis, and Rainer Schmelzeisen. 2003. “Marginal Flap Versus Paramarginal Flap in Impacted Third Molar Surgery: A Prospective Study.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 95(4): 403-8.
  423. Susarla, Srinivas, and Thomas Dodson. 2013. “Predicting Third Molar Surgery Operative Time: A Validated Model.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 71(1): 5-13.
  424. Susarla, Srinivas, Sharaf Basel, and Thomas Dodson. 2011. “Do Antibiotics Reduce the Frequency of Surgical Site Infections After Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery?” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America. 23(4): 541-6.
  425. Szmyd, L. 1971. “Impacted Teeth.” Dent Clin North Am. 15(2): 299-318.
  426. Tanaka, Toshio, Narazaki Masashi, and Tadamitsu Kishimoto. 2014. “IL-6 in Inflammation, Immunity, and Disease.” Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 6(10): a016295.
  427. Tantanapornkul, Weeraya, Okouchi Kiyoshi, Fujiwara Yoshikuni, Yamashiro Masashi, Maruoka Yutaka, Ohbayashi Naoto, and Tohru Kurabayashi. 2007. “A Comparative Study of Cone- Beam Computed Tomography and Conventional Panoramic Radiography in Assessing the Topographic Relationship between the Mandibular Canal and Impacted Third Molars.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 103(2): 253-9.
  428. Tenglikar, Pavan, Munnangi Ashwini, Mangalgi Anand, Uddin Syed F., Mathpathi Santosh, and Kundan Shah. 2017. “An Assessment of Factors Infuencing the Difficulty in Third Molar Surgery.” Ann Maxillofac Surg. 7(1): 45-50.
  429. The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 1993. “Guidelines for Sedation by Nonanaesthetists. Report of A Commission on the Provision of Surgical Services Working Party.” London.
  430. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). 2014. “Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Surgery. A National Clinical Guideline.” <http://medicinainterna.net.pe/images/guias/ GUIA_PARA_LA_PROFILAXIS_ANTIBIOTICA_EN_CIRUGIA.pdf>
  431. Tolstunov, Len, Javid Bachram, Keyes Lance, and Anders Nattestad. 2011. “Pericoronal Ostectomy: An Alternative Surgical Technique for Management of Mandibular Third Molars in Close Proximity to the Inferior Alveolar Nerve.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 69(7): 1858-66.
  432. Tonelli, Paolo, et al. 1991. “Il supporto farmacologico nel trattamento odontoiatrico dei pazienti emofilici.” Minerva Stomatol. 2: 107.
  433. Tonelli, Paolo, Serratì Simona, Margheri Francesca, Bruschi Silvia, D’Alessio Silvia, Pucci Marco, Fibbi Gabriella, and Mario Del Rosso. 2006. “Plasminogen Activators and Inibitor Type-1 in Alveolar Osteitis.” Eur J Oral Sci. 114(6): 500-3.
  434. Tonge, Charlotte H. 1976. “Identification of Cell Patterns in Human Tooth Differentiation.” J Dent Res. 46: 876-87.
  435. Troullos, Emanuel S., Freeman Ralph D., and Raymond Dionne. 1986. “The Scientific Basis for Analgesic Use in Dentistry.” Anesth Prog. 33(3): 123-38.
  436. Tucker, Geoffrey T., and Lawrence E. Mather. 1975. “Pharmacokinetics of Local Anaesthetic Agent.” Br. J. Anaesth. 47: 213-78.
  437. Tweed, Charles H. 1978. Ortodonzia clinica. volume 1. Padova: Piccin.
  438. Valletta, Giancarlo, Bucci Eduardo, e Sergio Matarasso. 1997. Odontostomatologia. volume 1. Padova: Piccin.
  439. Valletta, Giancarlo. 1995. Clinica Odontostomatologica. Salerno: Medica salernitana.
  440. Valletta, Giancarlo. 1995. Clinica odontostomatologica. Salerno: Medica salernitana.
  441. Van der Bijl, Pieter, Roelofse James A., De Jacob J., van Zyl J.F. 1991. “Comparison of Various Physiologic and Psychomotor Parameters in Patients Sedated wth Intravenous Lorazepam, Diazepam, or Midazolam During Oral Surgery.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 49(7): 672-8.
  442. Vance, Carol G., Dailey Dana L., Rakel Barbara A., and Kathleen A. Sluka. 2014. “Using TENS for Pain Control: The State of the Evidence.” Pain Management. 4(3): 197-209.
  443. Vignato, Giuseppe. 2014. Simbolismo del cavo orale e ipnosi. <https://www.ciics.it/wp-content/ uploads/VIGNATO.pdf>
  444. Vinkers, Chrostiaan H., Klanker Marianne, Groenink Luciane, Korte Mechiel S., Cook James M., Van Linn Michael L., Hopkins Seth C., and Berend Olivier. 2009. “Dissociating Anxiolytic and Sedative Effects of Gabaaergic Drugs Using Temperature and Locomotor Responses to Acute Stress.” Psychopharmacology (Berl). 204(2): 299-311.
  445. Vishal, Sinha, Khaitan Tanya, Ranjan Rajeev, and Nitesh Sharma. 2020. “Primary Closure After Surgical Extraction of Mandibular Third Molar with or without Tube Drain: A Prospective Study.” J Family Med Prim Care. 9(2): 637-41.
  446. Walsh, David A., and Daniel F. McWilliams. 2006. “Tachykinins and the Cardiovascular System.” Curr Drug Targets. 7(8): 1031-42.
  447. Wang, Chun-Cheng, Sang-Heng Kok, Lien-Tuan Hou, Puo-Jen Yang, Jang-Jaer Lee, Shih-Jung Cheng, Ru-Cheng Kuo, Hao-Hueng Chang. 2007. “Ectopic Mandibular Third Molar in the Ramus Region: Report of A Case and Literature Review.” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 105(2): 155-61.
  448. Wang, Yong, He Dongmei, Yang Chi, Wang Baoli, and Wentao Qian. 2012. “An Easy Way to Apply Orthodontic Extraction for Impacted Lower Third Molar Compressing to the Inferior Alveolar Nerve.” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 40(3): 234-7.
  449. Wehr, Chelsea, Cruz Gianncarlo, Young Simon, and Walid D. Fakouri. 2019. “An Insight into Acute Pericoronitis and the Need for an Evidence-Based Standard of Care.” Dent J (Basel). 7(3): 88.
  450. Weil, Kiaran, Hooper Lee, Afzal Zahid, Esposito Marco, Worthington Helen V., van Wijk Arjen, and Paul Coulthard. 2008. “Paracetamol for Pain Relief After Surgical Removal of Lower Wisdom Teeth.” Australian Dental Journal. 53(2): 184-5.
  451. Wilder, Robert T., Sholas Maurice G., and Charles B. Berde. 1996. “NG-nitro-Larginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) Prevents Tachyphylaxis to Local Anesthetics in A Dose-dependent Manner.” Anesth Analg. 83(6): 1251-5.
  452. Winter, George B. 1926. Principles of Exodontia as Applied to the Impacted Third Molar. St Louis: American Medical Books.
  453. Woolf, Clifford J. 1989. “Recent Advances in the Pathophysiology of Acute Pain.” Br. J. Anaesth. 63: 139-46.
  454. Woolf, Clifford J. 2010. “What is This Thing Called Pain?” J Clin Invest. 120(11): 3742‐44.
  455. Yamagata, Kenji, Onizawa Kunio, Yanagawa Toru, Hasegawa Yoji, Kojima Hiromi, Nagasawa Toru, and Hiroaki Yoshida. 2006. “A Prospective Study to Evaluate a New Dental Management Protocol Before Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.” Bone Marrow Transplantation. 38(3): 237-42.
  456. Yamaoka, Minoru. 1995. “Influence of Adjacent Teeth on Impacted Third Molars in The Upper and Lower Jaws.” Aust Dent J. 40(4): 233-5.
  457. Yang, Hee-Young, Kwon Joseph, Kook Min-Suk, Kang Seong Soo, Kim Se Eun, Sohn Sungoh, Jung Seunggon, Kwon Sang-Oh, Kim Hyung-Seok, Hyuk Lee Jae, and Tae-Hoon Lee. 2013. “Proteomic Anlysis of Gingival Tissue and Alveolar Bone During Alveolar Bone Healing.” Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 12(10): 2674-88.
  458. Ye, Zhou-Xi, Yan Chi, and Jing Ge. 2016. “Adjacent Tooth Trauma in Complicated Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: Risk Degree Classification and Digital Surgical Simulation.” Scientific Reports. 6: 1-7.
  459. Zanette, Gastone, Manani Giovanni, Favero Luca, Stellini Edoardo, Mazzoleni Sergio, Cocilovo Francesco, Ferrarese Nadia, and Enrico Facco. 2013. “Conscious Sedation with Diazepam and Midazolam for Dental Patient: Priority to Diazepam.” Minerva Stomatol. 62(10): 355-74.
  460. Zawawi, Khalid H., and Marcello Melis. 2014. “The Role of Mandibular Third Molars on Lower Anterior Teeth Crowding and Relapse after Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review.” Scientific World Journal.
  461. Zeitler, Deborah L. 1995. “Prophylactic Antibiotics for Third Molar Surgery: A Dissenting Opinion.” J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 53(1): 61-4.
  462. Ziccardi, Vincent B., and John R. Zuniga. 2007. “Nerve Injuries After Third Molar Removal.” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America. 19(1): 105-15.
  • Publication Year: 2022
  • Pages: 230
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-576-9
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2022 Author(s)

  • Publication Year: 2022
  • Pages: 230
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-575-2
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2022 Author(s)

  • Publication Year: 2022
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-577-6
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2022 Author(s)

Bibliographic Information

Book Title

Il giudizio nell'estrazione del terzo molare inferiore


Paolo Tonelli

Peer Reviewed

Number of Pages


Publication Year


Copyright Information

© 2022 Author(s)

Content License

CC BY 4.0

Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Publisher Name

Firenze University Press



ISBN Print


eISBN (pdf)


Series Title

Manuali – Biomedica

Series Issn ISSN


Series E-Issn




Search in This Book
Export Citation
Suggested Books


Open Access Books

in the Catalogue


Book Chapters





from 520 Research Institutions

of 51 Nations


scientific boards

from 276 Research Institutions

of 39 Nations



from 187 Research Institutions

of 32 Nations