La Politica Economica dei Paesi in via di Sviluppo

  • Giovanni Andrea Cornia,
  • Simone Bertoli,
  • Luca Bortolotti,
  • Bruno Martorano,
  • Donato Romano,
  • Marco Sanfilippo,
  • Luca Tiberti,
  • Elisa Ticci,

This manual has been written to respond to the need of making available an exhaustive compilation in the Italian language of the main topics and problems of the political economy of development in poor countries. So far, a discussion of such topics in Italian has not been available. The drafting of this manual has benefitted from the teaching and research experience of several academics of the faculty of economics of the university of Florence. Part 1 focuses on key methodological approaches derived from the theory of collective choices. In turn, Part 2 discusses the orthodox and heterodox macroeconomic reforms applied in developing countries, and their problems. Part 3 illustrates the domestic policies that have been or should have been adopted in the field of food security, land reform, environmental sustainability, taxation, social spending, labor markets and population. Part 4 discusses then the domestic policy reforms in the field of international trade, foreign direct investments, capital flows and international migration. Last, Part 5 illustrates the historical experience of five policy regimes (i.e. the import substituting industrialization, redistributive approaches, the Asian Miracle, Washington Consensus, and Sustainable Development) that have been introduced in the non-socialist developing countries between the decolonization of the 1950s and the present time. The methodological approach followed in the manual starts from an evaluation of the real-life impact on growth, income distribution, the wellbeing of the population, and the environment of the policies adopted during each policy regime and in the main economic areas. Whenever the policy measures introduced in the past generated unsatisfactory results, the manual suggests possible alternatives inspired by the structuralist and Keynesian schools.

  • Keywords:
  • developing countries,
  • policy regimes,
  • structuralism,
  • sustainable development,
  • alternative approaches,
+ Show More

Giovanni Andrea Cornia

University of Florence, Italy

Simone Bertoli

University of Clermont Auvergne, France - ORCID: 0000-0002-6512-0834

Luca Bortolotti

University of Turin, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0003-2632-6677

Bruno Martorano

University of Maastricht, Netherlands - ORCID: 0000-0001-9254-1418

Donato Romano

University of Florence, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0001-7120-8050

Marco Sanfilippo

University of Turin, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0001-8062-3352

Luca Tiberti

University of Florence, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0003-2305-6704

Elisa Ticci

University of Siena, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0002-3622-3447

Giovanni Andrea Cornia is Honorary Professor of Economics at the University of Florence where he taught from 2000 to 2017. Prior to this, he was Director of UNU-WIDER in Helsinki, Chief Economist at the Unicef Headquarter in New York, Visiting Professor at the European University Institute and the Universities of Pavia and Clermont-Auvergne, and Visiting Scholar at the University of Oxford. He was the first President of the Italian Society of Development Economics.

Simone Bertoli is Professor of Economics at CERDI, Université Clermont-Auvergne and CNRS- France, where he teaches since 2011, after completing several post-doctoral experiences at the IAB-Nurnberg (Germany) and the European University Institute. In 2007 he was awarded a PhD in development economics at the University of Florence.

Luca Bortolotti was awarded a PhD in development Economics by the joint doctoral program of the Universities of Trento and Florence. At the moment, he works for the Observatory on the Emerging Economies based in Turin.

Bruno Martorano was awarded in 2011 a PhD in development Economics at the University of Florence. Since 2017 he works as a Researcher at the UNU-MERIT and teaches public economics at the University of Maastricht. In the past he worked at the Center for Development and Cooperation of Zurich, the Institute of Development Studies in Brighton (UK) and the UNICEF Office of Research in Florence.

Donato Romano is Full Professor of Agricultural Economics at the University of Florence. He was Visiting Scholar at the Food Research Institute, Stanford University, and Professeur Visiteur at the Centre de Recherche en Économie du Développement of the University of Namur. He is the Coordinator of the PhD in development economics and local systems of the University of Florence.

Marco Sanfilippo was awarded in 2010 a PhD in development Economics at the University of Florence. He currently is Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Turin and Research Affiliate of Collegio Carlo Alberto. In the past, he worked as a professor and researcher at the European University Institute and the Universities of Bari and Antwerp.

Luca Tiberti received a PhD in development Economics at the University of Florence in 2008. He has worked at UNICEF IRC between 2008 and 2010, and the Université Laval (Canada) since 2011 as a post-doc, researcher and, finally, professor. Since 2021 he teaches Political Economy of Development at the University of Florence. And since 2015, he is the Research Director of the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP).

Elisa Ticci is Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Siena where she has been teaching since 2015. She was awarded a PhD in development economics at the University of Florence in 2007. She has worked as a researcher at the UNICEF Office of Research in Florence, the European University Institute and the World Bank.
Table of Contents



  1. Acemoglu, D. and P. Restrepo. 2020. “Robots and Jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets.” Journal of Political Economy 128 (6): 2188-244.
  2. Acocella, Nicola. 20115. Fondamenti di politica economica. Valori e tecniche. Roma: Nuova Italia Scientifica (Roma: Carocci, 2011).
  3. Adam, C. and D. Bevan. 2001. “Non-linear Effects of Fiscal Deficits on Growth in Developing Countries.” Working Paper. Department of Economics, Oxford University.
  4. Adelman, I. 1979. “Redistribution before Growth – a Strategy for Developing countries.” In Development of Societies: The Next Twenty-Five Year. Proceedings of the ISS 25th Anniversary Conference. The Hague, December 1977. Springer.
  5. Aiginger, K. and D. Rodrik. 2020. “Rebirth of Industrial Policy and an Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.” Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade 20: 189-207.
  6. Akresh, R., Halim, D. and M. Kleemans. 2021. Long-term and intergenerational effects of education: Evidence from school construction in Indonesia. Economic Journal, in corso di stampa.
  7. Alesina, A. and D. Rodrik. 1994. “Distributive politics.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 109 (2): 465-90.
  8. Amuedo-Dorantes, C. and S. Pozo. 2005. “Workers’ remittances and the real exchange rate: a paradox of gifts.” World development 32 (8): 1407-17.
  9. André, C. and J. P. Platteau. 1998. “Land relations under unbearable stress: Rwanda caught in the Malthusian trap.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 34 (1): 1-47.
  10. Antràs, P. 2020. “Conceptual Aspects of Global Value Chains.” World Bank Economic Review 34 (3): 551-74.
  11. Ariyoshi, Akira, Habermeier, Karl, Laurens, Bernard, Otker-Robe, Inci, Canales-Kriljenko, Jorge Iván and Andrei Kirilenko. 2000. “Capital Controls: Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization.” International Monetary Fund, May 17, 2000. <>.
  12. Ashraf, N., Bau, N., Nunn, N. and A. Voena. 2020. “Bride price and female education.” Journal of Political Economy 128 (2): 591-641.
  13. Badaracco, N., Gasparini, L. C., and M. Marchionni. 2016. “Distributive implications of fertility changes in Latin America.” International Journal of Population Research, article ID8717265.
  14. Baland, J. M. and J. P. Platteau. 1996. Halting Degradation of Natural Resources: Is There a Role for Rural Communities? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  15. Baldacci, E., Clements, B., Gupta, S., and Q. Cui. 2008. “Social spending, human capital, and growth in developing countries.” World Development 36 (8): 1317-41.
  16. Baldini, M. and L. Rizzo. 2019. Parti uguali tra disuguali? Bologna: il Mulino.
  17. Banca Mondiale. 2019. The Changing Nature of Work. Washington, DC.
  18. Barbier, E. 2019. Natural Resources and Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19. Bardhan, P. 2010. Awakening Giants. Feet of Clay. Assessing the Economic Rise of China and India. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
  20. Barrett, C. B. 2002. “Food Security and Food Assistance Programs.” In Handbook of Agricultural Economics. Volume 2B: Agricultural and Food Policy, edited by B. L. Gardner and G. C. Rausser, 2103-90. Amsterdam: North Holland.
  21. Barro, R. J. and J. W. Lee. 2002. “Who is chosen and what are the effects?”. NBER Working Paper 8951, Series IMF Programs. <>.
  22. Basile, E., Biggeri, M., Cecchi, C. e F. Volpi. 2021. Istituzioni e sviluppo economico nel capitalismo contemporaneo: il caso di Cina ed India. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  23. Bau, N. 2021. “Can policy change culture? Government pension plans and traditional kinship practices.” American Economic Review 111 (6): 1880-1917.
  24. Becker, G. S. 1962. “Investment in human capital: A theoretical analysis.” Journal of political economy 70 (5/2): 9-49.
  25. Beine, M., Docquier, F., and H. Rapoport. 2008. “Brain drain and human capital formation in developing countries: winners and losers.” The Economic Journal 118 (528): 631-52.
  26. Bellemare, M., and J. Bloem. 2018. “Does Contract Farming Improve Welfare? A Review.” World Development 112: 259-71.
  27. Bellemare, M., and S. Lim. 2018. “In All Shapes and Colors: Varieties of Contract Farming.” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 40 (3): 379-401.
  28. Bertoli, S., and F. Marchetta. 2015. “Bringing it all back home-return migration and fertility choices.” World Development 65: 27-40.
  29. Bhattacharya, P. S., Mitra, D. and M. A. Ulubaşoğlu. 2019. “The political economy of land reform enactments: New cross-national evidence (1900–2010).” Journal of Development Economics 139: 50-68.
  30. Biggeri, M. e F. Volpi. 2007. Teoria e politica dell’aiuto allo sviluppo. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  31. Biggeri, M., Clark, A., Ferranini, D. and V. Mauro. 2019. “Tracking the SDGsin an integrated manner: A proposal for a New Index to capture synergies and trade-offs between and within goals.” World Development 122: 628-47.
  32. Birdsall, N and S. W. Sinding. 2001. “Population Matters – Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World.” In Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth and Poverty in the in the Developing World, edited by N. Birdsall, A. C. Kelley and S. W. Sinding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  33. Blanchard, O. and D. Leigh. 2013. “Growth Forecast Errors and Fiscal Multipliers.” American Economic Review 103 (3): 117-20.
  34. Bloom, D. and J. Williamson. 1998. “Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia.” The World Bank Economic Review 12 (3): 419-55.
  35. Bongaarts, J. 2010. “The causes of educational differences in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Vienna yearbook of population research: 31-50.
  36. Borghesi, S. 2014. “Water tradable permits: a review of theoretical and case studies.” Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 57 (9): 1305-32.
  37. Borjas, G. J., Freeman, R. B., Katz, L. F., DiNardo, J., and J. M. Abowd. 1997. “How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?”. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: 1-90.
  38. Boserup, E. 1965. The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. Chicago: Aldine.
  39. Bridle, L., Magruder, J., McIntosh, C., and T. Suri. 2019. “Experimental Insights on the Constraints to Agricultural Technology Adoption.” Agricultural Technology Adoption Initiative – ATAI Working Paper, J-PAL (MIT) and CEGA: UC Berkeley.
  40. Bruno, M. and W. Easterly. 1995. “Inflation Crises and Long-Run Growth.” Policy Research Working Paper 1517. The World Bank.
  41. Bruno, M. and W. Easterly. 1998. “Inflation crises and long run growth.” Journal of Monetary Economics 41: 3-26.
  42. Bucheli, Marisa, Lustig, Nora, Rossi, Máximo and Florencia Amábile. 2013. “Social Spending, Taxes, and Income Redistribution in Uruguay.” Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Working Paper Series 10. Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  43. Canning, D., Raja, S., and A. S. Yazbeck. edited by. 2015. Africa’s demographic transition: dividend or disaster? Washington DC: World Bank Publications.
  44. Castañeda, A. et al. 2018. “A New Profile of the Global Poor.” World Development 10: 250-67.
  45. Cellini, Roberto. 20193. Politica Economica: introduzione ai modelli fondamentali. New York: Mc Grow Hill.
  46. CEPAL. 1990-2019. Balance preliminar de las Economias de America Latina y el Caribe. Santiago del Cile: CEPAL.
  47. CEPAL. 2007. Panorama Social de America Latina 2007. Santiago del Cile: CEPAL.
  48. CEPAL. 2008. Social Panorama of Latin America 2007. ECLAC. United Nations. Santiago del Cile.
  49. Chami, R., C. Fullenkamp, and S. Jahjah. 2005. “Are immigrant remittance flows a source of capital for development?”. IMF Staff papers 52 (1): 55-81.
  50. Chang, H. J. 2002. Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. London: Anthem Press.
  51. Chang, H. J. and A. Andreoni. 2020. “Industrial Policy in the 21st Century.” Development and Change 0 (0): 1-28.
  52. Chang, Hooi Eng. 1998. Foreign Direct Investment: A study of Malaysia’s Balance of Payments Position. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications.
  53. Chen, J., Hou. W., G. Zou and X. Zhou. 2010. “The Trend of the Gini Coefficient between Chinese Rural and Urban Residents from 1978 to 2008.” SSRN, Mar 29.
  54. Chen, S. and M. Ravallion. 2003. “How have the world’s poorest fared since the early 1980s?”. Working Paper S3341. Washington DC: The World Bank. <>.
  55. Chenery, H., Ahluwalia, M. S., Bell, C. L., Duloy, J. and R. Jolly. 1974. Redistribution with Growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  56. Cherif, Reda and Hasanov Fuad. 2019. “The Return of the Policy That Shall Not Be Named: Principles of Industrial Policy.” International Monetary Fund, March 26, 2019. <>.
  57. Chopra, K. and S. C. Gulati. 2001. Migration, Common Property Resources and Environmental Degradation: Interlinkages in India’s Arid and Semi-arid Regions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, New Delhi.
  58. Christiaensen, L., Demery, L., and J. Kuhl. 2011. “The (Evolving) Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction – An Empirical Perspective.” Journal of Development Economics 96 (2): 239-54.
  59. Chu, K. Y, Davoodi, H. and S. Gupta. 2004. “Income Distribution and Tax a Social-Spending Policies in Developing Countries.” In Inequality, Growth and Poverty in an Era of Liberalization and Globalization. UNU –WIDER Studies in Development Economics, edited by G. A. Cornia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  60. Cimoli, M., J. C. Ferraz, and A. Primi. 2005. “Science and technology policies in open economies: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean.” Serie su Desarrollo Productivo 165: 1-57. Santiago del Cile: ECLAC.
  61. Clemens, M. A., and D. McKenzie. 2018. “Why don’t remittances appear to affect growth?”. The Economic Journal 128 (612): F179-F209.
  62. Coale, A. J., and E. M. Hoover. 2015. Population growth and economic development. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  63. Cornia, G. A, Jolly, R. and F. Stewart. 1987. Adjustment with a Human Face. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  64. Cornia, G. A., Gómez-Sabaíni, J. C. and B. Martorano. 2011. “A new fiscal pact, tax policy changes and income inequality.” WIDER Working Paper 2011/70. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.
  65. Cornia, G. A. 1985. “Farm size, land yields and the agricultural production function: an analysis for 15 developing countries.” World Development 13 (4): 513-34.
  66. Cornia, G. A. 1994. Macroeconomic Policy, Poverty Alleviation and Long-term Development: Latin America in the 1990s. Innocenti Occasional Papers, Economic Policy Series 40. Firenze: International Child Development Centre.
  67. Cornia, G. A. 2002. Inequality, Growth and Poverty in an Era of Liberalization and Globalization, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  68. Cornia, G. A. 2014. Falling Inequality in Latin America: Policy Changes and Lessons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  69. Cornia, G. A. 2019. “Eradicating Poverty by the Year 2030: Implications for Income Inequality, Population Policies, Food Prices (and Faster Growth?).” Journal of Globalization and Development 9 (2).
  70. Cornia, G. A. and F. Stewart. 1993. “Two Errors of Targeting.” Innocenti Occasional Papers, Economic Policy Series 36. Firenze: Unicef-ICDC.
  71. Cornia, G. A. and S. Kiiski. 2001. “Trends in Income Distribution in the Post-World War II Period: Evidence and Interpretation.” WIDER Working Paper Series DP2001-89. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.
  72. Cornia, G. A. e M. Uvalic. 2014. “Learning form the past: which of the past/current development strategies are best suited to deal with the ‘quadruple crisis?”. In Alternative Development Strategies for the Post 2015 Era, edited by J. A. Alonso, G. A. Cornia and R. Vos. London: Bloomsbury Academic Series.
  73. Cornia, G. A., and B. Martorano. 2012. “Development Policies and Income Inequality in Selected Developing Regions, 1980-2010.” UNCTAD Discussion Papers 210. UNCTAD.
  74. Cornia, G. A., Jolly, R. and F. Stewart. 1987. Adjustment with a Human Face: Protecting the Vulnerable and Promoting Growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  75. Cornia, G. A. and N. H. I. Lipumba. 1999. “The impact of the liberalization of the exchange rate and financial markets in sub-Saharan Africa. Editors’ introduction.” Journal of International Development.
  76. Cornia, G. A. and G. Jerger. 1982. “Rural versus Urban Saving Behaviour: Evidence from an ILO Collection of Household Surveys.” Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies 13 (1): 123-57.
  77. D’Antonio, M., Graziani, A. e S. Vinci. 1979. Problemi e metodi di politica economica. Napoli: Editrice Liguori.
  78. De Allegri, M., Sauerborn, R., Kouyaté, B., and S. Flessa. 2009. “Community health insurance in sub‐Saharan Africa: what operational difficulties hamper its successful development?”. Tropical Medicine & International Health 14 (5): 586-96.
  79. De Haan, L. J. 1998. “Gestion de terroir at the frontier: village land management of peasants and pastoralists in Benin.” In The Arid Frontier. Interactive Management of Environment and Development, edited by Hendrik J. Bruins and Harvey Lithwick, 209-27. Dordrecht: Springer.
  80. De Janvry, A. and E. Sadoulet. 2015. Development economics: Theory and practice. London: Routledge.
  81. de Janvry, A. and E. Sadoulet. 2020. “Using Agriculture for Development: Supply- and Demand-side Approaches.” World Development 133: 105003.
  82. de Janvry, A. and E. Sadoulet. 20212. Development Economics. London: Routledge.
  83. Deininger, K. 2012. “Land Rights and the World Bank Group: Setting the Record Straight.” World Bank Blog, April 25, 2012. <>.
  84. Deininger, K. and D. Byerlee. 2011. Rising Global Interest in Farmland: Can It Yield Sustainable and Equitable Benefits? World Bank e-Library.
  85. Deininger, K. and P. Olinto. 1999. “Asset Distribution, Inequality, and Growth.” SSRN, November 1999. <>.
  86. Demery, L. 2000. “Benefit incidence: a practitioner’s guide.” Poverty and Social Development Group Africa Region Working Paper.
  87. Dessy, S., Tiberti, L. and D. Zoundi. 2021. Culture, Poverty and the Education Gender Gap: Evidence from Rural Malawi. Mimeo.
  88. Devaux, A., Torero, M., Donovan, J., and D. Horton. 2017. “Agricultural Innovation and Inclusive Value-Chain Development: A Review.” Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies 8 (1): 99-123.
  89. Diaz F. G. 1984. “Mexico’s path from stability to inflation.” In World economic growth edited by Arnold C. Harberger, 333-66. San Francisco: ICS Press, Institute for Contemporary Studies.
  90. Dornbush, R. and S. Edwards. 1992. The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  91. Duflo, E. 2001. “Schooling and labor market consequences of school construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an unusual policy experiment.” American economic review 91 (4): 795-813.
  92. Easterly, R. A. 1967. “Effects of Population Growth on the Economic Development of Developing Countries.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 369: 98-108.
  93. Easterly, W. 2001. “Inflation and the Poor.” Journal of Money Credit and Banking 33 (2): 160-78.
  94. Eichegreen, B. 2000. “Taming Capital Flows.” World Development 28 (6): 1105-16.
  95. Emmanuel, A. 1970. Lo scambio ineguale. Torino: Einaudi.
  96. Erten, B., Korinek, A. and J. A. Ocampo. 2021. “Capital Controls: Theory and Evidence.” Journal of Economic Literature 59 (1): 45-89.
  97. European Central Bank. 2007. “Monthly Bulletin.” September 2007.
  98. FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. 2021. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021. Transforming Food Systems for Food Security, Improved Nutrition and Affordable Healthy Diets for All. Rome: FAO.
  99. FAO. 1996. “Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action.” World Food Summit, 13-17 November 1996. Rome.
  100. FAO. 2015. “Costa Rica Case Study.” Prepared for FAO as part of the State of the World’s Forests 2016.
  101. Fargues, P. 2004. “The Global Demographic Benefit of International Migration: A Hypothesis and an Application to Middle Eastern and North African Contexts.” Paper presented at the Fifth Mediterranean Social and Political Research Meeting of the Mediterranean Programme of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute, Florence.
  102. Fargues, P. 2006. The demographic benefit of international migration: Hypothesis and application to Middle Eastern and North African contexts. Volume 4050. World Bank Publications.
  103. Fernandez, H., Kee, L. and D. Winkler. 2020. “Determinants of Global Value Chain: Cross-Country Evidence.” Policy Research Working Paper 9197. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  104. Freire, P. 2002. La pedagogia degli oppressi. Torino: EGA.
  105. French-Davis, R. and H. Tapia. 2003. “The Chilean-style Capital Controls: an Empirical Assessment.” draft for comments: <>.
  106. Fu, X. and V. N. Balasubramanyan. 2003. “Township and Village Enterprises in China.” Journal of Development Studies 39 (4): 27-46.
  107. Furtado, C. 19772. Economic Development of Latin America: Historical Background and Contemporary Problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  108. Galli, G. e L. Gerotto. 2019. “La Curva di Laffer e la Flat tax.” OCPI, 12 Agosto, 2019. Milano: Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  109. Galor, O., and D. N. Weil. 2000. “Population, technology, and growth: From Malthusian stagnation to the demographic transition and beyond.” American Economic Review 90 (4): 806-28.
  110. Gasparini, L., Brambilla, I., César, A., Falcone, G. and C. Lombardo. 2020. “The Risk of Automation in Argentina.” CEDLAS Working Papers 0260. Universidad Nacional de La Plata: CEDLAS.
  111. Gertler, P., Locay, L., and W. Sanderson. 1987. “Are user fees regressive?: The welfare implications of health care financing proposals in Peru.” Journal of econometrics 36 (1-2): 67-88.
  112. Gilson, L. 1997. “The lessons of user fee experience in Africa.” Health policy and planning 12 (3): 273-85.
  113. Ginding, T. H. and K. Terrel. 2004. “Minimum Wages, Inequality, and Globalization.” Michigan Journal of International Law 26 (1).
  114. Gries, T., and R. Grundmann. 2018. “Fertility and modernization: the role of urbanization in developing countries.” Journal of International Development 30 (3): 493-506.
  115. Grogger, J., and G. H. Hanson. 2011. « Income maximization and the selection and sorting of international migrants.” Journal of Development Economics 95 (1): 42-57.
  116. Hagerdoon, L. C. et al. 2021. “Preferences of vulnerable social groups for ecosystem-based adaptation to flood risk in Central Vietnam.” World Development 148: 105650.
  117. Hall, R. E. and A. Rabushka. 2007. The Flat Tax. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.
  118. Hanlon, Joseph, Barrientos, Armando and David Hulme. 2010. Just give money to the poor. The Development Revolution from the Global South. Manchester: Brooks Poverty Centre.
  119. Harari, Y. 2014. Sapiens: a Brief History of Humankind. Harper.
  120. Harris, J. R. and M. P. Todaro. 1970. “Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis.” American Economic Review 60 (1): 126-42.
  121. Hayami, Y., and V. Ruttan. 1971. Agricultural Development: An International Perspective. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  122. Hellman, T., F., Murdock, K. C. and J. E. Stiglitz. 1997. “Financial restraint: toward a new paradigm.” In The Role of Government in East Asian Economic Development: An Institutional Analysis, edited by M. Aoki, H. K. Kim and M. Okuno-Fujiwara. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  123. Hellmann, T., Murdock, K., Stiglitz, J. and A. Sheng. 1998. Financial Restraint and the Market Enhancing View. Springer Verlag.
  124. Holland, A. and Ross B. Schneider. 2017. “Easy and Hard Redistribution: The Political Economy of Redistribution in Latin America.” Perspective on Policies 15 (4): 988-1006.
  125. Hsieh, C. T. and P. Klenow. 2009. “Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in China.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (4): 1403-48.
  126. Hunt, D. 1989. Economic theories of development: An analysis of competing paradigms. Harvester Wheasheaf.
  127. IMF. 2005. World Economic Outlook 2005, chapter 2. Washington DC: IMF.
  128. International Land Coalition. 2021. Uneven ground. <>.
  129. International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2016. “Heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative and multilateral debt relief initiative (mdri) — statistical update.” IMF, March 15, 2016. <>.
  130. IRP. 2019. Global Resources Outlook 2019. Natural Resources for the Future We Want. Nairobi: UNEP.
  131. Izugbara and Ezeh. 2010. “Women and high fertility in Islamic northern Nigeria.” Studies in family planning 41 (3).
  132. Jack, B. K. 2013. “Constraints on the Adoption of Agricultural Technologies in Developing Countries.” Agricultural Technology Adoption Initiative – ATAI Literature Review, J-PAL (MIT) and CEGA: UC Berkeley.
  133. Jalan, J. and M. Ravallion. 1999. “Determinants of Transient and Chronic Poverty: Evidence from Rural China.” Policy Research Working Paper 1936. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  134. Johnson, C. 1982. MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy in Japan, 1925-75. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  135. Johnston, B. and J. Mellor. 1961. “The Role of Agriculture in Economic Development.” American Economic Review 87 (2): 566-93.
  136. Kaplinsky, R. 2006. “Revisiting the revisited terms of trade: Will China make a difference?”. World Development 34 (6): 981-95.
  137. Kapur, D. and J. McHale. 2005. Give Us Your Best and Brightest: The Global Hunt for Talent and Its Impact on the Developing World. Washington DC : Center for Global Development.
  138. Keynes, John M. 1932. “The economic possibilities for our grandchildren (1930).” In Id. Essays in Persuasion, 358-73. New York: Harcourt Brace. <>.
  139. Krugman, P. and M. Obstfeld. 1995. Economia Internazionale: Teoria e politica economica. Milano: Editore Ulrico Hoepli.
  140. Laffer, A. B. 2004. The Laffer Curve: Past, Present, and Future. The Heritage Foundation.
  141. Lagarde, M., and N. Palmer. 2011. “The impact of user fees on access to health services in low‐and middle‐income countries.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4.
  142. Lewis, W. A. 1954. “Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour.” Manchester School, 22 May: 139-91.
  143. Lipton, M. 1977. Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  144. Lipton, M. 2009. Land Reform in Developing Countries. Property Rights and Property Wrongs. London-New York: Routledge.
  145. Liu, E. 2019. “Industrial Policies in Production Networks.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 134 (4): 1883-948.
  146. Longhi, S., Nijkamp, P., and J. Poot. 2005. “A meta‐analytic assessment of the effect of immigration on wages.” Journal of Economic Surveys 19 (3): 451-77.
  147. Lowder, S. K., Sánchez, M. V. and R. Bertini. 2021. “Which Farms Feed the World and Has Farmland Become More Concentrated?”. World Development 142: 105455.
  148. Lucas, R. 1976. Econometric Policy Evaluation: a Critique. Studies in Business Cycle Theory, (rist. Harvard: MIT Press, 1983).
  149. Lush, Louisiana et al. 2000. “Politics and fertility: a new approach to population policy analysis.” Population Research and Policy Review 19 (1).
  150. Lustig, N. edited by. 2018. Commitment to Equity Handbook: Estimating the Impact of Fiscal Policy on Inequality and Poverty. New Orleans: CEQ Institute at Tulane University; Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
  151. Lustig, N., Gray-Molina, G., Higgins, S., Jaramillo, M., Jiménez, W., Paz, V., Pereira, C., Pessino, C., Scott, J. and E. Yañez. 2012. “The Impact of Taxes and Social Spending on Inequality and Poverty in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico and Peru: a Synthesis of Results.” CEQ Working Paper 3. Tulane University.
  152. Mankiw, G., Weinzierl M. and D. Yagan. 2009. “Optimal Taxation in Theory and Practice.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 23 (4): 147-74.
  153. Marsden, K. 1983. “Links between Taxes and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Evidence.” Word Bank Staff Working Papers 605: 21-5.
  154. Martorano, B. 2014. “The Impact of Uruguay’s 2007 Tax Reform on Equity and Efficiency.” Development Policy Review 32 (6): 701-14.
  155. Mazzucato, M., Kattel, R. and J. Ryan-Collins. 2021. “Industrial Policy’s Comeback.” Boston Review. <>.
  156. McCulloch, N., Winters, L. A., and X. Cirera. 2001. Trade Liberalisation and poverty: A Handbook. DFID.
  157. McNabb, K. 2016. ‘Tax Structures and Economic Growth: New Evidence from The Government Revenue Dataset.” UNU WIDER Working Paper 2016/148. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.
  158. Mirrlees, J. A. 1971. “An Exploration in the Theory of Optimum Income Taxation.” Review of Economic Studies: 175-208.
  159. Mishra, P. 2007. “Emigration and wages in source countries: Evidence from Mexico.” Journal of Development Economics 82 (1): 180-99.
  160. Mishra, V. K. 2004. “Muslim/non-Muslim differentials in fertility and family planning in India.” East-West Center Working Papers.
  161. Morrison, C., and J. P. Jütting. 2005. “Women’s discrimination in developing countries: A new data set for better policies.” World Development 33 (7): 1065-81.
  162. Muhuri, P. K., Blanc, A. K. and S. O. Rutstein. 1994. “Socioeconomic differentials in fertility.” Demographic and Health Surveys comparative studies 13.
  163. Murphy, Deborah, Drexhage, John, Tirpak, Dennis and Philip Gass. 2009. “Financing for Developing Countries.” International Institute for Sustainable Development, September 2009.<>.
  164. Mussa, M. and M. Savastano. 1999. “The IMF Approach to Economic Stabilization.” NBER Macroeconomics Annual 14: 79-122. Published by The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
  165. Myrdal, Gunnar. 1968. The Asian Drama. An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations. New York: Pantheon Press.
  166. Nafziger, W. 1998. The Economics of Developing Countries. Prentice Hall.
  167. Ndikumana L. and J. K. Boyce. 2018. Capital Flight from Africa: Updated Methodology and New Estimates. Amherst: PERI Institute, University of Massachusetts.
  168. Ndikumana, L. 2021. “Capital Flight from Africa: Resource Plunder and the Poisoned Paradises in Tax Havens.” PERI Working Paper, April 08, 2021. Amherst: University of Massachusetts.
  169. O’Loughlin, J. A., Linke A. M. and F. D. W. Wimmer. 2014. “Effects of temperature and precipitation variability on the risk of violence in sub-Saharan Africa, 1980-2012.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (47): 1672-17.
  170. Ocampo, J. A. 2021. “International Financial Cooperation to Address the Latin American Economic Crisis.” In When Governments Fail, edited by, V. Rawal, J. Ghosh e C. P. Chandrasekar. New Delhi: Tulika Books.
  171. Ocampo, J. A. and J. E. Stiglitz. edited by. 2008. Capital Account Liberalization and Development. The Initiative for Policy Dialogue. New York: Oxford University Press.
  172. OECD. 2020. “A “debt standstill” for the poorest countries: How much is at stake?”. OECD, May 27, 2020. <>.
  173. Olson, D. J., and A. Piller. 2013. “Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.” Studies in family planning 44 (4): 445-59.
  174. Olson, M. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  175. Olson, Z., Clark, R. G. and S. A. Reynolds. 2019. “Can a conditional cash transfer reduce teen fertility? The case of Brazil’s Bolsa Familia.” Journal of health economics 63: 128-44.
  176. OMS. 2021. “Ambient (outdoor) air pollution.”, World Health Organization, September 22, 2021. <>.
  177. Ostrom, E. 2009. “A General Framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social-Ecological Systems.” Science 325 (5939): 419-22.
  178. Ostry, J. D, Loungani, P. and D. Furceri. 2016. “Neoliberalism: Oversold?”. Finance and Development 53 (2). Washington DC: IMF.
  179. Özden, Ç., Parsons, C. R., Schiff, M., and T. L. Walmsley. 2011. “Where on earth is everybody? The evolution of global bilateral migration 1960-2000.” The World Bank Economic Review 25 (1): 12-56.
  180. Patnaik, P. 1979. “Industrial Development in India since Independence.” Social Scientist 7: 3-19.
  181. Pauw, P., Mbeva, K. and H. van Asselt. 2019. “Subtle differentiation of countries’ responsibilities under the Paris Agreement.” Palgrave Communications 5 (86).
  182. Pecchi, L. and G. Piga. 2008. Revisiting Keynes: Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  183. Perotti, Roberto. 1992. “Income Distribution, Politics, and Growth.” American Economic Review 82 (2): 311-16.
  184. Piketty, T., Saez, E. and S. Stantcheva. 2014. “Optimal Taxation of Top Incomes: A Tale of Three Elasticities.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 6 (1): 230-71.
  185. Poirine, Bernard. 1997. “A theory of remittances as an implicit family loan arrangement.” World Development 25 (4): 589-611.
  186. Polak, J. J. 1997. The IMF Monetary Model at Forty’ WP97/49. Washington DC: Research Department, International Monetary Fund. <>.
  187. Pomfret, R. 2001. “Reform Paths in Central Asian Transition Economies.” In Transition and Institutions: the Experience of the Late and Gradual Reformers, edited by G. A. Cornia e V. Popov. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  188. Poston, Dudley L., and Michael Micklin. edited by. 2005. Handbook of population. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
  189. Prebisch, R. 1949. “The economic development of Latin America and its principal problems.” Economic Bulletin of Latin America 7: 1-22.
  190. Prebisch, R. 1950. The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems. New York: United Nations.
  191. Przewosky, A. and J. R. Vreeland. 2000. “The Effect of IMF programs on economic growth.” Journal of Development Economics 62 (2): 385-421.
  192. Psacharopoulos, G. e H. A. Patrinos. 2018. “Returns to investment in education: a decennial view of the global literature.” Education Economics 26 (5): 445-58.
  193. Qian, N. 2008. “Missing women and the price of tea in China: The effect of sex-specific earnings on sex imbalance.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (3): 1251-85.
  194. Ramsey F. 1927. “A contribution to the theory of Taxation.” Economic Journal 37(145): 47-61.
  195. Ranis, G. and J. Fei. 1961. “A Theory of Economic Development.” American Economic Review 51: 533-59.
  196. Ravallion, M. 1997. “Famines and Economics.” Journal of Economic Literature 35 (September): 1205-42.
  197. Rawls, J. 1971. A theory of justice. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  198. Ray, D. 1997. Development Economics, chapter 9. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  199. Ritchie, H. and M. Roser. 2017. “Air Pollution.” Our World in Data, October 2017. <>.
  200. Rodrik, D. 2006. “Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion? A Review of the World Bank’s Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform.” Journal of Economic Literature 44: 973-87.
  201. Rodrik, D. 2016. “Premature deindustrialization.” Journal of Economic Growth 21 (1): 1-33.
  202. Rohner, D. and A. Saia. 2019. Education and conflict: Evidence from a policy experiment in Indonesia. Mimeo.
  203. Roser, M. and E. Ortiz-Espina. 2017. “World Population Growth.” Our World In Data. <>.
  204. Ruggeri-Laderchi, C., Saith, R. and F. Stewart. 2003. “Does it Matter that we do not agree on the definition of poverty ? A Comparison of Four Approaches.” Oxford Development Studies 31 (3).
  205. Schaffer, M. E. and G. Turley. 2000. “Effective Versus Statutory Taxation: Measuring Effective Tax Administration in Transition Economies.” SSRN Electronic Journal, November 2000.
  206. Schultz, T. W. 1980. “Nobel Lecture: The Economics of Being Poor.” Journal of Political Economy 88: 639-51.
  207. Selden M. and J.-M. Wu. 2011. “The Chinese State, Incomplete Proletarianization and Structures of Inequality in Two Epochs.” The Asia-Pacific Journal 9 (5/1), 31 January.
  208. Sen, A. 1970. Collective Choice and Public Welfare. San Francisco, California: Holden-Day.
  209. Sen, A. 1981. Poverty and Famines: an Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  210. Sen, A. 1990. “More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing.” The New York Review, December 20, 1990. <>.
  211. Sen, A. 1992. “Missing women.” British Medical Journal 304 (6827): 587.
  212. Sen, A. 1993. “Capability and Well-being.” In The Quality of Life, edited by A. Sen and M. Nussbaum, 62-6. Clarendon Press. Oxford.
  213. Soares, F. R. Perez Ribas and R. Guerreiro Osorio. 2010. “Evaluating the Impact of Brazil’s Bolsa Familia Cash Transfer Program in Comparative Perspective.” Latin American Research Review 45, (2): 173-90.
  214. Stewart, F. 1985. Planning to Meet Basic Needs. Basingstoke: McMillan Palgrave.
  215. Stoilova D. 2017. “Tax structure and economic growth: Evidence from the European Union.” Contaduriay Administracion 62 (3): 1041-57.
  216. Taylor, L. 1988. Variety of Stabilization Experiences: Towards Sensible Macroeconomics in the Third World. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  217. Ticci, E. 2003. “Condizioni per il successo delle riforme agrarie nei Paesi in Via di Sviluppo”. Tesi di laurea. Università di Firenze.
  218. Thiesenhusen, W. C. 1989. Searching for Agrarian Reform in Latin America. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
  219. Timmer, P. C. 1988. “The Agricultural Transformation.” In Handbook of Development Economics, edited by H. Chenery and T. N. Srinisavan, vol. 1, 275-31. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  220. Tobin, J. 1978. “A proposal for international monetary reform.” Eastern Economic Journal 4 (3/4).
  221. Tuck, L. and W. Zakout. 2019. “7 reasons for land and property rights to be at the top of the global agenda.” World Bank Blogs, March 25, 2019. <>.
  222. UNCTAD. 2020. World Investment Report 2019. Geneva.
  223. UNDESA. 2020. World Fertility and Family Planning 2020: Highlights. New York: UNDESA.
  224. UNDP, UNEP, The World Bank, World Resources Institute. 2005. World Resources 2005. The Wealth of the Poor: Managing ecosystems to fight poverty.
  225. UNDP. 2011. Human Development Report 2011: Sustainability and Equity – A Better Future for All. New York. <>.
  226. UNEP. 2016. A Snapshot of the World’s Water Quality: Towards a global assessment. Nairobi, Kenya.
  227. UNEP. 2018. The State of Knowledge of Crimes That Have Serious Impacts on the Environment. <http://hdl.>.
  228. UNEP. 2020. Emissions Gap Report 2020. <>.
  229. Unicef. 2008. “Budget Investments in Health and Education of Azerbaijani Children.” Baku: Unicef.
  230. UNIDO. 2020. Industrialization as the Driver of Sustained Prosperity. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
  231. United Nations Population Division. 2015-2017. World Population Prospects: 2015 and 2019 Revisions’. New York: United Nations.
  232. Visser, J. 2020. “I sindacati in transizione”. Documento dell’Organizzazione Internazionale del Lavoro. Ginevra: ACTRAV.
  233. Volpi, F. 1994. Introduzione all’Economia dello Sviluppo. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  234. Wade, R. 1992. Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian industrialization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  235. Wagstaff, A., and E. V. Doorslaer. 2003. “Catastrophe and impoverishment in paying for health care: with applications to Vietnam 1993–1998.” Health economics 12 (11): 921-33.
  236. Wallbott, L. and E. M. Florian-Rivero. 2018. “Forests, rights and development in Costa Rica: a Political Ecology perspective on indigenous peoples’ engagement in REDD+.” Conflict, Security & Development 18 (6): 493-519.
  237. Whitehead, M., Dahlgren, G., and T. Evans. 2001. “Equity and health sector reforms: can low-income countries escape the medical poverty trap?”. The Lancet 358 (9284): 833-6.
  238. WHO. 2019. Global spending on health: a world in transition. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO).
  239. Williamson, J. 2004. “A Short History of the Washington Consensus.” <>.
  240. Winkler, K., Fuchs, R., Rounsevell, M. et al. 2021. “Global land use changes are four times greater than previously estimated.” Nature Communications 12: 2501.
  241. Woodruff, C., and R. Zenteno. 2007. “Migration networks and microenterprises in Mexico.” Journal of Development economics 82 (2): 509-28.
  242. World Bank. 1993. The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  243. World Bank. 1997. The World Development Report 1997. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  244. World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008. Agriculture for Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  245. World Bank. 2020. World Development Report 2020. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  246. World Bank. 2021. At your Service? The promise of service-led economic development. Washington, DC.
  247. World Meteorological Organization. 2021. State of the Global Climate 2020. Ginevra.
  248. Yu, Yongdin. 2006. “Global imbalances and China.” The Australian Economic Review 40 (1): 1-21.
  249. Zettelmeyer, J. 1998. “The Uzbek Growth Puzzle.” IMF Working paper 98/1330.
  • Publication Year: 2022
  • Pages: 462
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-522-6
  • © 2022 Firenze University Press

  • Publication Year: 2022
  • Pages: 462
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-521-9
  • © 2022 Firenze University Press

  • Publication Year: 2022
  • eISBN: 978-88-5518-523-3
  • © 2022 Firenze University Press

Bibliographic Information

Book Title

La Politica Economica dei Paesi in via di Sviluppo


Donato Romano, Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Simone Bertoli, Luca Bortolotti, Bruno Martorano, Marco Sanfilippo, Luca Tiberti, Elisa Ticci

Peer Reviewed

Number of Pages


Publication Year


Copyright Information

© 2022 Firenze University Press

Content License


Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Publisher Name

Firenze University Press



ISBN Print


eISBN (pdf)


eISBN (xml)


Series Title

Manuali – Scienze Sociali

Series Issn ISSN


Series E-Issn




Search in This Book
Export Citation
Suggested Books


Open Access Books

in the Catalogue


Book Chapters





from 510 Research Institutions

of 51 Nations


scientific boards

from 259 Research Institutions

of 37 Nations



from 187 Research Institutions

of 32 Nations