Contained in:
Book Chapter

Solar and Chthonic Deities in Ancient Anatolia: The Evolution of the Chthonic Solar Deity in Hittite Religion

  • Charles Steitler

The “Sun-goddess of the earth” and the less clearly defined category of “chthonic solar deities” of Hittite religion have been the objects of various studies in recent years. This paper aims to examine the significance of these categories of deities within the Hittite festival texts. Although the Sun-goddess of the earth achieves some prominence in local cult contexts, such as at Zippalanda and Nerik, she otherwise remains a marginal deity. This contrasts with her general significance in Hittite magical rituals. The chthonic solar deities represent a less tangible deity type that is associated with death and the netherworld, but that also does not attain overarching significance in the Hittite state pantheon. Finally, the paper addresses the question, to what cultural milieu can we trace the beginnings of the Sun-goddess of the earth? Efforts to identify her origins in the Hattian milieu of north-central Anatolia will be critiqued, favoring the Luwian milieu instead as the most likely from which the tradition of the Sun-goddess emerged, and later flourished in the magical traditions especially that became widespread in Hittite society of Late Bronze Age Anatolia.

  • Keywords:
  • Hittite religion,
  • Anatolian religion,
  • chthonic deities,
  • solar deities,
  • festivals,
+ Show More

Charles Steitler

Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz, Germany - ORCID: 0000-0003-2387-6833

  1. Archi, Alfonso. 2013. “The Anatolian Fate-Goddesses and their Different Traditions”. In Diversity and Standardization. Perspectives on Social and Political Norms in the Ancient Near East, eds. Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum, Jörg Klinger, and Gerfrid G. W. Müller, 1-26. Berlin: Akademie.
  2. Beckman, Gary M. 1999. Hittite Diplomatic Texts. 2nd ed. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press (WAW 7).
  3. Beckman, Gary M. 2001. “Ḫantili I.” In Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalische Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, eds. Thomas Richter, Doris Prechel, and Jörg Klinger, 51-8. Saarbrücken: Saarbrücker.
  4. Cammarosano, Michele. 2016. CTH 526.10. hethiter.net/: CTH 526.10.
  5. Cammarosano, Michele. 2019. “Kultinventare aus Kayalıpınar.” In Keilschrifttafeln aus Kayalıpınar 1. Textfunde aus den Jahren 1999–2017, ed. Elisabeth Rieken. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (DAAM 1).
  6. Cohen, Yoram. 2010. “Rara avis: A Study of the ḪU Section of the Sa Vocabulary”. In Your Praise Is Sweet. A Memorial Volume for Jeremy Black from Students, Colleagues and Friends, eds. Heather D. Baker, Eleanor Robson, and Gábor Zólyomi, 29-40. Exeter: British Insitute for the Study of Iraq.
  7. Collins, Billie Jean. 2006. “Pigs at the Gate: Hittite Pig Sacrifices in its Eastern Mediterranean Context” Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 6: 155-88.
  8. Corti, Carlo. 2002. “I frammenti ‘minori’ di CTH 3: ipotesi di interpretazione.” In Anatolia antica. Studi in memoria di Fiorella Imparati. Vol.1, eds. Stefano de Martino, and Franca Pecchioli Daddi, 171-80. Firenze: LoGisma (Eothen 11).
  9. Corti, Carlo. 2010. “The Religious Traditions of the ‘Zalpa Kingdom’. New Edition of CTH 733 and Related Documents.” In Acts of the VIIth International Congress of Hittitology. Çorum, August 25-31, 2008 (Vol.1), ed. Aygül Süel, 139-56. Ankara: Anit Matbaa.
  10. Corti, Carlo. 2014. “The Land of Zalpuwa and the Origins of Hittite Kingship.” Paper read at Sacred Landscapes of the Hittites and Luwians (February 6th–8th, 2014, University of Florence).
  11. Corti, Carlo. 2018. “Along the Road to Nerik. Local Panthea of Hittite Northern Anatolia.” Welt des Orients 48: 24-71.
  12. Czichon, Rainer M. 2020. “Die ‘tiefe Quelle’ von Nerik (Oymaağaç Höyük).” In Cult, Temple, Sacred Spaces: Cult Practices and Cult Spaces in Hittite Anatolia and Neighbouring Cultures. Acts of the 1st International HFR Symposium, Mainz, 3–5 June 2019, eds. Susanne Görke, and Charles W. Steitler, 159-78. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (StBoT 66).
  13. Dardano, Paola. 2006. Die hethitischen tontafelkataloge aus Ḫattuša (CTH 276-282). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (StBoT 47).
  14. Devecchi, Elena. 2015. Trattati internazionali ittiti. Brescia: Paideia (TVOa 4/4).
  15. Goedegebuure, Petra. 2008. “Central Anatolian Languages and Language Communities in the Colony Period: A Luwian-Hattian Symbiosis and the Independent Hittites.” In: Anatolia and the Jazira During the Old Assyrian Period, ed. Jan Gerrit Dercksen, 137-80. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten (PIHANS 111).
  16. Güterbock, Hans G. 1960. “An Outline of the Hittite AN.TAḪ.ŠUM Festival.” Journal of Near Estern Studies 19: 80-89.
  17. Haas, Volkert. 1970. Der Kult von Nerik. Ein Beitrag zur hethitischen Religionsgeschichte. Roma: Pontifical Biblical Institute.
  18. Haas, Volkert. 1994. Geschichte der Hethitischen Religion. Leiden–New York–Köln: Brill (HdO I/15).
  19. Haas, Volkert, and Wäfler, Markus. 1976. “Bemerkungen zu Éḫeštī/ā- (1. Teil). ” UF 8: 65-99.
  20. Holland, Gary, and Zorman, Marina. 2007. The Tale of Zalpa. Myth, Morality, and Coherence in a Hittite Narrative. Pavia: Italian University (StMed 19).
  21. Houwink ten Cate, Philo H.J. 1988. “Brief Comments on the Hittite Cult Calendar. The Main Recension of the Outline of the nuntarriyašḫaš-Festival, especially Day 8-12 and 15’-22’.” In Documentum Asiae minoris antiquae. Festschrift für Heinrich Otten zum 75. Geburtstag, eds. Erich Neu and Christel Rüster, 167-94. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  22. Klinger, Jörg. 1996. Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der hattischen Kultschicht. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (StBoT 37).
  23. Kloekhorst, Alwin. 2008. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden–Boston: Brill (IEED 5).
  24. Lorenz-Link, Ulrike. 2016. Uralte Götter und Unterweltsgötter. Religionsgeschichtliche Betrachtungen zu der ‘Sonnengöttin der Erde’ und den ‘uralten Göttern’ bei den Hethitern. Mainz: Universitätsbibliothek (online publication of PhD thesis submitted in 2009, as dated on title page).
  25. Melchert, Craig H. 2019. “Solar and Sky Deities in Anatolian.” In QAZZU warrai. Anatolian and Indo-European Studies in Honor of Kazuhiko Yoshida, eds. Adam A. Catt, Ronald I. Kim, and Brent Vine, 239-49. Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press.
  26. Metcalf, Christopher. 2011. “New Parallels in Hittite and Sumerian Praise of the Sun.” Welt des Orients 41: 168-76.
  27. Mouton, Alice, ed. 2010ff. Rituel d'Allī d'Arzawa. hethiter.net/: CTH 402.
  28. Nakamura, Mitsuo. 2002. Das hethitische nuntarriyašḫa-Fest. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten (PIHANS 94).
  29. Neu, Erich. 1980. Althethitische Ritualtexte in Umschrift. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (StBoT 25).
  30. Popko, Maciej. 1991. “Eine ‘Schwarze Tafel’ aus Boğazköy (KUB LX 121).” Altorientalische Forschungen 18: 239-45.
  31. Popko, Maciej. 1994. Zippalanda. Ein Kultzentrum im hethitischen Kleinasien. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter (THeth 21).
  32. Popko, Maciej. 2004. “Zu den Göttern von Zalpa.” In Studia anatolica et varia. Mélanges offerts au Professeur René Lebrun (Volume II), eds. Michel Mazoyer and Olivier Casabonne, 241-51. Paris: l'Harmattan.
  33. Rieken, Elisabeth, et al., eds. 2015ff.-a. CTH 379 - Pestgebet Muršilis II. an die Götterversammlung. hethiter.net/: CTH 379.
  34. Rieken, Elisabeth, eds. 2015ff.-b. CTH 383.1 - Gebet Ḫattušilis III. und der Puduḫepa an die Sonnengöttin von Arinna. hethiter.net/: CTH 383.1.
  35. Rieken, Elisabeth, eds. 2015ff.-c. CTH 384.1 – Gebet der Puduḫepa an die Sonnengöttin von Arinna. hethiter.net/: CTH 384.1.
  36. Rieken, Elisabeth, eds. 2015ff.-d. CTH 386.1 - Gebet an den Wettergott von Nerik. hethiter.net/: CTH 386.1.
  37. Sasseville, David. 2022a. “Palaic pašḫulla- (eDiAna-ID 538).” In eDiAna. (http://www.ediana.gwi.uni-muenchen.de/dictionary.php?lemma=538, last visited 02/08/2023).
  38. Sasseville, David. 2022b. “Palaic wāšḫullati- (eDiAna-ID 539).” In eDiAna. (http://www.ediana.gwi.uni-muenchen.de/dictionary.php?lemma=539, last visited 02/08/2023).
  39. Singer, Itamar. 2002. Hittite Prayers. Leiden–Boston–Köln: Brill (WAW 11).
  40. Singer, Itamar. 2009. “‘In Hattuša the Royal House Declined’. Royal Mortuary Cult in 13th Century Hatti.” In Central-North Anatolia in the Hittite Period. New Perspectives in Light of Recent Research, eds. Franca Pecchioli Daddi, Giulia Torri, and Carlo Corti, 169-91. Roma: Herder (StAs 5).
  41. Soysal, Oğuz. 1989. Mursili I. Eine historische Studie. PhD thesis, Philosophische Fakultät I, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.
  42. Soysal, Oğuz. 2004. Hattischer Wortschatz in hethitischer Textüberlieferung. Leiden–Boston: Brill (HdO I/74).
  43. Soysal, Oğuz. 2005. “Beiträge zur althethitischen Geschichte (III). Kleine Fragmente historischen Inhalts.” Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 95: 104-20.
  44. Soysal, Oğuz. 2006. “Das hethitische Wort für ‘Zinn’.” Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 119: 109-16.
  45. Steitler, Charles W. 2017. The Solar Deities of Bronze Age Anatolia. Studies in Texts of the Early Hittite Kingdom. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (StBoT 62).
  46. Steitler, Charles W. Forthcoming. “ ‘Ahnenkult’ in the Hittite AN.DAḪ.ŠUM Festival. The Case of the Festival for the Storm-god of Lightning.” In Proceedings of the 66. RAI, “Cultural Contacnt – Cultures of Contact”, July 25–29, 2022, Mainz/Frankfurt.
  47. Taracha, Piotr. 2021. “Priestly Colleges in North-Central Anatolia: Some Remarks on the Tradition and Organization of Local Cults in the Second Millennium BCE.” Archiv für Orientforschung 54: 225-32.
  48. Torri, Giulia. 1999. Lelwani. Il culto di una dea ittita. Rome: Università di Roma (V.O., Quaderni 2).
  49. Torri, Giulia. 2015. “Remarks about the transmission of festival texts concerning the cult of Lelwani (based on the fragment KBo 13.216 + KBo 56.89 (+) KBo 56.90).” In Saeculum – Gedenkschrift für Heinrich Otten anlässlich seines 100. Geburtstags, eds. Andreas Müller-Karpe, Elisabeth Rieken, and Walter Sommerfeld, 289-300. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (StBoT 58).
  50. Torri, Giulia. 2019. “Did the Storm God of Zippalanda have a Mother or a Wife? Remarks about the Cults of Kataḫḫa and the Sun Goddess of the Earth in Zippalanda and Ankuwa.” Asia Anteriore Antica 1: 217-24.
  51. van Gessel, Ben H.L. 1998. Onomasticon of the Hittite Pantheon 1-2. Leiden–New York–Köln: Brill (HdO I/33).
  52. Waal, Willemijn J.I. 2014. “Changing Fate: Hittite gulš-/GUL-š-, dGulšeš/dGUL-šeš, Cuneiform Luwian gulzā(i)-/GUL-zā(i)-, Hieroglyphic Luwian REL-za and the Kuwanšeš deities.” In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Hittitology. Warsaw, 5-9 September 2011, ed. Piotr Taracha, 1016–1033. Warsaw: AGADE.
  53. Waal, Willemijn J.I. 2019. “Fate Strikes Back: New Evidence for the Identification of the Hittite Fate Deities and Its Implications for Hieroglyphic Writing in Anatolia.” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 71: 121-132.
  54. Warbinek, Livio. 2022. “The -šepa theonyms in the Hittite pantheon.” Vicino Oriente 26: 1-19. DOI: 10.53131/VO2724-587X2022_1
  55. Wegner, Ilse. 2002. Hurritische Opferlisten aus hethitischen Festbeschreibungen. Teil II: Texte für Teššub, Ḫebat und weitere Gottheiten. Rome: Istituto di studi sulle civiltà dell’Egeo e del Vicino Oriente del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ChS I/3-2).
  56. Yakubovich, Ilya. 2008. “The Origin of Luwian Possessive Adjectives.” In Proceedings of the 19th Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference. Los Angeles, November 3 - 4, 2007, eds. Karlene Jones-Bley, Martin E. Huld, Angela Della Volpe, and Miriam Robbins Dexter, 193-217.Washington: Institute for the Study of Man (Journal of Indo-European Monograph Series 54).
  57. Yakubovich, Ilya. 2022. “Sun-goddess of the earth: inherited deity or scribal construct?.” Paper read at Kultur-Kontakt-Kultur, 66. Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (July 27, 2022, University of Mainz).
  58. Yoshida, Daisuke. 1996. Untersuchungen zu den Sonnengottheiten bei den Hethitern. Schwurgötterliste, helfende Gottheit, Feste. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter (THeth 22).
PDF
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • Pages: 149-179
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

XML
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

Chapter Information

Chapter Title

Solar and Chthonic Deities in Ancient Anatolia: The Evolution of the Chthonic Solar Deity in Hittite Religion

Authors

Charles Steitler

Language

English

DOI

10.36253/979-12-215-0109-4.15

Peer Reviewed

Publication Year

2023

Copyright Information

© 2023 Author(s)

Content License

CC BY 4.0

Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Bibliographic Information

Book Title

Theonyms, Panthea and Syncretisms in Hittite Anatolia and Northern Syria

Book Subtitle

Proceedings of the TeAI Workshop Held in Verona, March 25-26, 2022

Editors

Livio Warbinek, Federico Giusfredi

Peer Reviewed

Number of Pages

194

Publication Year

2023

Copyright Information

© 2023 Author(s)

Content License

CC BY 4.0

Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Publisher Name

Firenze University Press

DOI

10.36253/979-12-215-0109-4

ISBN Print

979-12-215-0108-7

eISBN (pdf)

979-12-215-0109-4

Series Title

Studia Asiana

Series ISSN

1974-7837

Series E-ISSN

2612-808X

206

Fulltext
downloads

118

Views

Export Citation

1,303

Open Access Books

in the Catalogue

1,746

Book Chapters

3,161,365

Fulltext
downloads

3,987

Authors

from 820 Research Institutions

of 63 Nations

63

scientific boards

from 339 Research Institutions

of 43 Nations

1,148

Referees

from 346 Research Institutions

of 37 Nations