Book Chapter

Rulership and the Gods: The Role of Cultic Institutions in the Late Bronze to Iron Age Transition in Anatolia and Northern Syria

  • Lorenzo d'Alfonso
  • Nathan Lovejoy

This paper aims to demonstrate that cults and cultic institutions are a crucial element for understanding the processes producing different regional outcomes after the fall of the Hittite empire. In this paper, cults are understood as normative cosmic forces defining tempo and worldview of ancient societies. Cultic institutions can be identified as physical spaces defined by purity, charged with real and symbolic value, and led by specialists whose competence is recognised by the community. Instead of being a by-product of political complexity, they are a driving force behind the power dynamics because they are perceived as such in a bottom-up perspective, but also often by main political actors in search of legitimation of their power. This paper examines the interconnections between cultic and political institutions in the territory under the Hittite empire and in the same space after the empire’s demise. We aim to distinguish between processes of resilience, reorganisation, and transformation as they occurred in particular micro-regions previously controlled by the empire, including the Upper Euphrates, South-Central Anatolia, North-Central Anatolia, Cilicia, and the Northern Levant; this will demonstrate both the importance of such a micro-regionally defined study, as well as the shared coincidence of cultic and political institutional change. It will become evident that cultic continuity coincided with the resilience of political institutions, and changes in the cultic landscape corresponded to political reorganisations or transformations in post-Hittite Anatolia and north Syria.

  • Keywords:
  • institution; temple; kingship; Syro-Anatolia; post-Hittite,
+ Show More

Lorenzo d'Alfonso

University of Pavia, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0001-9163-3417

Nathan Lovejoy

New York University, United States - ORCID: 0000-0002-0124-5398

  1. Abu Assaf A. 1990, Der Tempel von ’Ain Dârâ, Damaszener Forschungen 3, Mainz am Rhein, Philipp von Zabern.
  2. Adiego, I.-X. 2021, Observacions sobre la nova inscripció lúvia jeroglífica del gran rei Hartapu (TÜRKMEN-KARAHÖYÜK 1), in L. Feliu, A. Millet, J. Vidal (eds), «Sentido de un empeño». Homenatge a Gregorio del Olmo Lete, Monographica Orientalia 16, Barcelona, Edicions Universitat de Barcelona: 13-22.
  3. Akurgal E. 1983, Das dunkle Zeitalter Kleinasiens, in S. Deger-Jalkotzy (ed.), Griechenland, die Ägäis und die Levante während der “Dark Ages” vom 12. bis zum 9. Jahrhundert v. Chr., Wien, Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: 67-78.
  4. Alkım B. 1952, The Results of the Recent Excavations at Domuztepe, Belleten 62: 225-250.
  5. Al-Maqdissi M., van Lerberghe K., Bretschneider J., Badawi M. 2007, Tell Tweini: The Syro-Belgian Excavations, Damascus, Direction générale des antiquités et des musées.
  6. Archi A. 1979, Auguri per il Labarna, in O. Carruba (ed.), Studia mediterranea Piero Meriggi dicata, Studia Mediterranea 1, Pavia, Iuculano: 27-51.
  7. Archi A. 2014, Aštata: A Case of Hittite Imperial Religious Policy, Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religion 14: 141-163.
  8. Archi A. 2015, Hittite Religious Landscapes, in A. D'Agostino, V. Orsi, G. Torri (eds.), Sacred Landscapes of Hittites and Luwians: Proceedings of the International Conference in Honour of Franca Pecchioli Daddi, Firenze, Firenze University Press: 11-25.
  9. Aro S. 2010, Luwians in Aleppo?, in I. Singer (ed.), Luwian and Hittite Studies Presented to J. David Hawkins on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday, Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv University: 1-9.
  10. Aro S. 2014, The Relief on the Slab NKL 2 at Karatepe-Azatiwataya: Neo-Assyrian Impact in Cilicia?, in S. Gaspa, A. Greco, D. Morandi Bonacossi, S. Ponchia, R. Rollinger (eds), From Source to History. Studies on Ancient Near Eastern Worlds and Beyond. Dedicated to Giovanni Battista Lanfranchi on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday on June 23, 2014, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 412, Münster, Ugarit Verlag: 11-32.
  11. Aro S. 2022, Images of the Hittite King, in S. de Martino (ed.), Handbook Hittite Empire. Power Structures, Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter: 497-601.
  12. Beckman G.M. 1995, Royal Ideology and State Administration in Hittite Anatolia, in J.C. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Volume 1, New York, Scribner: 529-543.
  13. Beyer D. 2010, From the Bronze Age to the Iron Age at Zeyve Höyük/Porsuk: A Temporary Review, in L. d’Alfonso, M.E. Balza, C. Mora (eds), Geo-Archaeological Activities in Southern Cappadocia – Turkey, Studia Mediterranea 22, Pavia, Italian University Press: 97-109.
  14. Beyer D. 2015, Quelques nouvelles données sur la chronologie des phases anciennes de Porsuk, du Bronze Moyen à la réoccupation du Fer, in D. Beyer, O. Henry, A. Tibet (eds), La Cappadoce méridionale : de la préhistoire à la période byzantine, Istanbul, Institut Français d’Études Anatoliennes Georges-Dumézil: 101-110.
  15. Bittel K. 1970. Hattusha. The Capital of the Hittites. Flexner Lectures 1967, New York, Oxford University Press.
  16. Blakeney S. 2017, The North-West Building, Level IIIe, in J.N. Postgate (ed.), Excavations at Kilise Tepe 2007-2011: The Late Bronze and Iron Ages, London, British Institute at Ankara: 42-47.
  17. Blaylock S. 2009, Tille Höyük 3.1: The Iron Age. Introduction, Stratification and Architecture, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph Series 41, London, British Institute at Ankara.
  18. Bossert H.T., Alkım B., Çambel H., Ogunsu N., Süzen İ. 1950, Karatepe Kazilari (Birinci Ön-Rapor)/Die Ausgrabungen auf dem Karatepe (erster Vorbericht), Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlarindan.
  19. Bouthillier Ch., Colantoni C., Debruyne S., Glatz C., Hald M.M., Heslop D., Kozal E., Miller B., Popkin P., Postgate J.N., Steele C., Stone A. 2014, Further Work at Kilise Tepe, 2007-2011: Refining the Bronze to Iron Age Transition, Anatolian Studies 64: 95-161.
  20. Bretschneider J., Cunningham T.F., van Lerberghe K. 2000, Gibala. The First Two Excavations 1999 and 2000, Ugarit-Forschungen 31: 75-131.
  21. Bretschneider J., van Lerberghe K., Vansteenhuyse K., al-Maqdissi M. 2008, The Late Bronze and Iron Age in the Jebleh Region: A View from Tell Tweini, in H. Kühne, R.M. Czichon, F.J. Kreppner (eds), Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 33-46.
  22. Cammarosano M. 2018, Hittite Local Cults, Writings from the Ancient World 40, Atlanta (GA), Society of Biblical Literature.
  23. Cancik H. 1993, ‘Herrschaft’ in historiographischen und juridischen Texten der Hethiter, in K. Raaflaub (ed.), Anfänge politischen Denkens in der Antike. Die nahöstlichen Kulturen und die Griechen, München, Oldenbourg: 115-133.
  24. Castellano L. 2018, Staple Economies and Storage in Post-Hittite Anatolia: Considerations in Light of New Data from Niğde-Kınık Höyük (Southern Cappadocia), Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 6/4: 259-284.
  25. Castellano L. 2021, A New Anthracological Sequence from Niğde-Kınık Höyük (Turkey): Woodland Vegetation and Arboriculture in Southern Cappadocia from the Late Bronze Age to the Ottoman Period, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 13 (March)
  26. Çambel H., Özyar A. 2003, Karatepe-Aslantaş: Azatiwataya: Die Bildwerke, Mainz, Philipp von Zabern.
  27. Cecchini S. 2014, Tell Afis in the Iron Age: The Official Buildings on the Eastern Acropolis, Near Eastern Archaeology 77/1: 58-63.
  28. Cohen Y. 2010, The Administration of Cult in Hittite Emar, Altorientalische Forschungen 38: 813-839.
  29. Cohen Y., d’Alfonso L. 2008, The Duration of the Emar Archives and the Relative and Absolute Chronology of the City, in L. d’Alfonso, Y. Cohen, D. Sürenhagen (eds), The City of Emar among the Late Bronze Age Empires: History, Landscape, and Society, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 349, Münster, Ugarit-Verlag: 3-25.
  30. Culican W. 1968, The Iconography of Some Phoenician Seals and Seal Impressions, Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology 1: 50-103.
  31. Czichon, R.M., Klinger J., Breuer P., Eerbeck J., Fox S.C., Marinova-Wolff H., von der Osten-Woldenburg H. 2011, Archäologische Forschungen am Oymaağaç Höyük/Nerik(?) in den Jahren 2007-2010, Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 143: 169-250.
  32. D’Agostino A., Orsi V., Torri G. 2019-2020, Looking for Traces of Cultic Practices at Uşaklı Höyük. Some Remarks about Buildings, Texts and Potsherds, News from the Lands of the Hittites 3-4: 113-142.
  33. d’Alfonso L. 2007, Talmi-Šarruma Judge? Some Thoughts on the Jurisdiction of the Kings of Aleppo during the Hittite Empire, Studi Micenei ed Egeo Anatolici 49: 159-169.
  34. d’Alfonso L. 2011, Seeking a Political Space: Thoughts on the Formative Stage of Hittite Administration in Syria, Altorientalische Forschungen 38: 163-176.
  35. d’Alfonso L. 2020a, An Age of Experimentation: New Thoughts on the Multiple Outcomes Following the Fall of the Hittite Empire after the Results of the Excavations at Niğde-Kınık Höyük (South Cappadocia), in S. de Martino, E. Devecchi (eds), Anatolia between the 13th and the 12th Century BCE, Eothen 23, Firenze, LoGisma: 95-116.
  36. d’Alfonso L. 2020b, Reorganization vs. Resilience in Early Iron Age Monumental Art of Central Anatolia, in M. Cammarosano, E. Devecchi, M. Viano (eds), talugaeš witteš. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Presented to Stefano de Martino on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Kasion 2, Münster, Zaphon: 81-101.
  37. d’Alfonso L. 2021, Borders in the Archaeology of the Hittite Empire, in L. d’Alfonso, K. Rubinson (eds), Borders in Archaeology: Changing Landscapes in Anatolia and the South Caucasus ca. 3500-500 BCE, Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Supplement 58, Leuven – Boston – Köln, Peeters: 169-210.
  38. d’Alfonso L., Matessi A. 2021, Extracting Cohesion: Fiscal Strategies in the Hittite Staple Economy, in J. Valk, I. Soto Marín (eds), Ancient Taxation. The Mechanics of Extraction in Comparative Perspective, New York, New York University Press: 128-159.
  39. d’Alfonso L., Pedrinazzi M. 2021, Forgetting an Empire, Creating a New Order: Trajectories of Rock-Cut Monuments from Hittite into Post-Hittite Anatolia, and the Afterlife of the ‘Throne’ of Kızıldağ, in J. Ben-Dov, F. Rojas (eds), Afterlives of Ancient Rock-Cut Monuments in the Near East: Carvings in and Out of Time, Boston (MA), Brill: 114-160.
  40. de Martino S. (ed.) 2022, Handbook Hittite Empire. Power Structures, Oldenbourg, De Gruyter.
  41. de Martino S., Devecchi E. (eds) 2020, Anatolia between the 13th and the 12th Century BCE, Eothen 23, Firenze, LoGisma.
  42. Denel E., Harrison T.P. 2018, Neo-Assyrian Tayinat, in K. Köroğlu and S.F. Adalı (eds), The Assyrians: Kingdom of the God Aššur from Tigris to Taurus, İstanbul, Yapı Kredi Yayınları: 364-379.
  43. Devecchi E. 2022, The Governance of the Subordinated Countries, in S. de Martino (ed.), Handbook Hittite Empire. Power Structures, Oldenbourg, De Gruyter: 271-312.
  44. Dınçol A., Dınçol B., Marchetti N., Peker H. 2014, A Stele by Suhi I from Karkemish, Orientalia NS 83: 143-153.
  45. Fleming D.E. 2000, Time at Emar: The Cultic Calendar and the Rituals from the Diviner’s Archive, University Park (PANAMA), Penn State University Press.
  46. Frangipane M., Balossi Restelli F., Di Filippo F., Manuelli F., Mori L. 2019-2020, Arslantepe: new data on the formation of the Neo-Hittite kingdom of Melid, News from the Lands of the Hittites 3-4: 71-111.
  47. Genz H. 2004. Büyükkaya I. Die Keramik der Eisenzeit: Funde aus den Grabungskampagnen 1993 bis 1998, Boğazköy-Ḫattus̆a 21, Mainz am Rhein, Philipp von Zabern.
  48. Gilan A. 2004, Sakrale Ordnung und politische Herrschaft im hethitischen Anatolien, in M. Hutter, S. Hutter-Braunsar (eds), Offizielle Religion, lokale Kulte und individuelle Religiosität, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 318, Münster, Ugarit-Verlag: 189-205.
  49. Gilibert A. 2011. Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. The Stone Reliefs at Carchemish and Zincirli in the Earlier First Millennium BCE, Topoi – Berlin Studies of the Ancient World 2, Berlin, De Gruyter.
  50. Gilibert A. 2014, Religion and Propaganda under the Great Kings of Karkemis, in A. D’Agostino, V. Orsi, G. Torri (eds), Sacred Landscape of Hittites and Luwians: proceedings of the International Conference in Honour of Franca Pecchioli Daddi: Florence, February 6th-8th 2014, Firenze, Firenze University Press: 137-155.
  51. Girginer K.S. 2011, Excavations at Tatarlı Höyük in 2011, ANMED. News of Archaeology from Anatolia’s Mediterranean Areas 2012-10: 110-114.
  52. Girginer K.S., Oyman-Girginer Ö. 2020, Tatarlı Höyüğün Stratigrafisi Üzerine Ön Sonuçlar, in K.S. Girginer, G. Dardeniz, A. Gerçek, F. Erhan, E. Genç, İ. Tuğcu, Ö. Oyman-Girginer, M. Fırat, H. Gerçek, M. Tufan (eds), Mors immatura. In the Shadow of Amanus. In memoriam Hayriye Akil, Kizzuwatna Researches Project Publications 1, İstanbul, Ege Yayınları: 211-250.
  53. Girginer K.S., Oyman-Girginer Ö., Akıl H. 2012, Excavations at Tatarlı Höyük in 2009 and 2010, ANMED. News of Archaeology from Anatolia’s Mediterranean Areas 2011-9: 128-135.
  54. Giusfredi F. 2009, The Problem of the Luwian title tarwanis, Altorientalische Forschungen 36/1: 140-145.
  55. Giusfredi F. 2018, Sulle nuove (e vecchie) cronologie degli stati neoittiti alla luce dei nuovi testi e dell’annalistica neoassira, in M. Betrò, S. De Martino, G. Miniaci, F. Pinnock (eds), Egitto e Vicino Oriente antichi: tra passato e futuro. Studi e Ricerche sull’Egitto e il Vicino Oriente in Italia, I convegno nazionale, Pisa, 5-6 giugno 2017, Pisa, Pisa University Press: 163-169.
  56. Glatz C. 2009, Empire as Network: Spheres of Material Interaction in Late Bronze Age Anatolia, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28/2: 127-141.
  57. Glatz C. 2020, The Making of Empire in Bronze Age Anatolia: Hittite Sovereign Practice, Resistance, and Negotiation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  58. Goedegebuure P., van den Hout Th.P.J., Osborne J., Massa M., Bachhuber Ch., Şahin F. 2020, A New Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscription from Great King Hartapu, Son of Mursili, Conqueror of Phrygia, Anatolian Studies 70: 29-43.
  59. Goetze A. 1957, Kleinasien, 2nd edition, München, Beck.
  60. Goetze A. 1964, State and Society of the Hittites, in G. Walser (ed.), Neuere Hethiterforschung, Wiesbaden, Franz Steiner Verlag: 23-33.
  61. Goldman H. (ed.) 1956, Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus. Vol. 2: From the Neolithic through the Bronze Age, Princeton, Princeton University Press.
  62. Goldman H. (ed.) 1963, Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus. Vol. 3: The Iron Age, Princeton, Princeton University Press.
  63. Gurney O. 1980, The Hittites, 7th revised edition, Middlesex, Penguin Books.
  64. Harmanşah Ö., Johnson P., Durusu-Tanrıöver M., Marsh B. 2022, The Archaeology of Hittite Landscapes: A View from the Southwestern Borderlands, Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 10/1: 1-48.
  65. Harrison T.P. 2009, Lifting the Veil on a ‘Dark Age’: Ta’yinat and the North Orontes Valley during the Iron Age, in D. Schloen (ed.), Exploring the Longue Durée: Essays in Honor of Lawrence E. Stager, Winona Lake (IN), Eisenbrauns: 171-184.
  66. Harrison T.P. 2011a, Tell Tayinat’s Great Lion, Bout de Papier 26/2: 19.
  67. Harrison T.P. 2011b, Temples, Tablets and the Neo-Assyrian Provincial Capital of Kinalia, Journal of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 6: 29-37.
  68. Harrison T.P. 2012, West Syrian megaron or Neo-Assyrian Langraum? The Shifting Form and Function of the Tell Ta‘yīnāt (Kunulua) Temples, in J. Kamlah, H. Michelau (eds), Temple Building and Temple Cult. Architecture and Cultic Paraphernalia of Temples in the Levant (2.-1. Mill. BCE), Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 41, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 3-21.
  69. Harrison T.P., Osborne J.. 2012, Building XVI and the Neo-Assyrian Sacred Precinct at Tell Tayinat, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 64: 125-143.
  70. Harrison T.P., Denel E., Batiuk S. 2018, Tayinat Höyük Kazıları, 2017, Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı 40/3: 483-502.
  71. Hart G. 2005, The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, 2nd edition, New York, Routledge.
  72. Hawkins J.D. 1988, Kuzi-Tesub and the “Great Kings” of Karkamis, Anatolian Studies 38: 99-108.
  73. Hawkins J.D. 1995, “Great Kings” and “Country Lords” at Malatya and Karkamis, in Th.P.J. van den Hout, J. de Roos (eds), Studio historiae ardens. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Presented to Philo H. J. Houwink ten Cate on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday, PIHANS 74, Leiden, Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten: 73-86.
  74. Hawkins J.D. 2000, Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Volume 1: Inscriptions of the Iron Age, Studies in Indo-European Language and Culture. New Series 8/1, Berlin, De Gruyter.
  75. Hawkins J.D. 2011, The Inscriptions of the Aleppo Temple, Anatolian Studies 61: 35-54.
  76. Hawkins J.D., Weeden M. 2016, Sketch History of Karkamish in the earlier Iron Age (Iron I-IIB), in T. Wilkinson, E. Peltenburg, E.B. Wilkinson (eds), Carchemish in Context. The Land of Carchemish Project, 2006-2010, Themes from the Ancient Near East BANEA Publication Series 4, Oxford – Philadelphia, Oxbow Books: 9-21.
  77. Hawkins J.D., Weeden M. 2021, The New Inscription from Türkmenkarahöyük and Its Historical Context, Altorientalische Forschungen 48/2: 384-399.
  78. Heffron Y., Şerifoğlu T.E., Steele C., Stone A. 2017, in J.N. Postgate (ed.), Excavations at Kilise Tepe 2007-2011: The Late Bronze and Iron Ages, London, British Institute at Ankara: 107-144.
  79. Herbordt S., von Wickede A., Schachner A. 2021, Kleinfunde aus der Oberstadt von Hattusa. Das zentrale Tempelviertel und die Tempelviertel am Königs- und Löwentor, Boğazköy-Hattuša 29, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz.
  80. Hutter M. 2017, König und Gott. Die ikonographische Repräsentation der hethitischen Könige, in J. Gießauf (ed.), Zwischen Karawane und Orientexpress. Streifzüge durch Jahrtausende orientalischer Geschichte und Kultur, Festschrift für Hannes Galter, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 434, Münster, Ugarit-Verlag: 155-174.
  81. Hutter M. 2021. Religionsgeschichte Anatoliens. Vom Ende des dritten bis zum Beginn des ersten Jahrtausends, Die Religionen der Menschheit 101, Stuttgart, Kohlhammer.
  82. Imparati F. 1988, Interventi di politica economica dei sovrani ittiti e stabilità del potere, in Aa. Vv., Stato, economia, lavoro nel Vicino Oriente Antico, edited by Istituto Gramsci Toscano, Milano, Franco Angeli: 225-239.
  83. Kaufman S. 2007, The Phoenician Inscription of the İncirli Trilingual: A Tentative Reconstruction and Translation, MAARAV 14/2: 7-26.
  84. Klengel H. 1988, Aspetti dello sviluppo dello Stato ittita, in Aa. Vv., Stato, economia, lavoro nel Vicino Oriente Antico, edited by Istituto Gramsci Toscano, Milano, Franco Angeli: 183-194.
  85. Klengel H. 1992, Syria 3000 to 300 B.C.: A Handbook of Political History, Berlin, Akademie Verlag.
  86. Klengel H. 1999, Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches, Handbuch der Orientalistik I/34, Leiden – Boston – Köln, Brill.
  87. Klengel H. 2001, Einige Bemerkungen zu hethitischen Herrschaftsordnung in Syrien, in G, Wilhelm (ed.), Akten des IV internationalen Kongresses für Hethitologie, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 255-271.
  88. Kohlmeyer K. 2008, Zur Datierung der Skulpturen von ‘Ain Dārā, in D. Bonatz, R.M. Czichon, J. Kneppner (eds), Fundstellen. Gesammelte Schriften zur Archäologie und Geschichte Altvorderasiens ad honorem Hartmut Kühne, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 119-131.
  89. Kohlmeyer K. 2009, The Temple of the Storm God in Aleppo during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, Near Eastern Archaeology 74/4: 190-202.
  90. Kohlmeyer K. 2012, Der Tempel des Wettergottes von Aleppo. Baugeschichte und Bautyp, räumliche Bezüge, Inventar und bildliche Ausstattung, in J. Kamlah, H. Michelau (eds), Temple Building and Temple Cult. Architecture and Cultic Paraphernalia of Temples in the Levant (2.-1. Mill. BCE), Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 41, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 55-78.
  91. Kozal E., Novák M. 2013, Sirkeli Höyük: A Bronze and Iron Age Urban Settlement in Plain Cilicia, in Ü. Yalcın (ed.), Anatolian Metal. Volume 6, Der Anschnitt Beiheft 25, Bochum, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum: 229-238.
  92. Lanaro A. 2015, A Goddess among Storm-Gods. The Stele of Tavşantepe and the Landscape Monuments of Southern Cappadocia, Anatolian Studies 65: 79-96.
  93. Lauinger J. 2011, Some Preliminary Thoughts on the Tablet Collection in Building XVI from Tell Tayinat, The Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 6: 5-14.
  94. Lehner J.W. 2017, Innovation and Continuity of Metal Production and Consumption during the Early Iron Age at Boğazköy-Hattuša, in A. Schachner (ed.), Innovation versus Beharrung. Was Macht den Unterschied des hethitischen Reichs im Anatolien des 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr.?, Byzas 23, İstanbul, Ege Yayınları – Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Abteilung Istanbul: 145-161.
  95. Lovejoy N. 2022, Ambiguity of Divine and Royal Portraiture and the Hiyawan Image of Kingship: Political Identity through the Monuments of ÇİNEKÖY and KARATEPE, Bulletin of the American Society of Overseas Research 387: 113-138.
  96. Lovejoy N. forthcoming, The Cult of the Storm-God in Syro-Anatolia: Regional Continuity and Local Innovation an Figurative Representations between the Late Bronze and Iron Ages, in L. d’Alfonso, I. Calini, R. Hawley, M.G. Masetti-Rouault (eds), Between the Age of Diplomacy and the First Great Empire (1200-900 BCE); Ancient Western Asia beyond the Paradigm of Collapse and Regeneration, New York, New York University Press.
  97. Lovejoy N., Matessi A. forthcoming, Divine Ladies of the Syro-Anatolian Iron Age: Developmental Trajectories, Local Variations, and Interregional Interactions, in L. Warbineck, F. Giusfredi (eds), Theonyms, Panthea and Synchretisms in Hittite Anatolia and Northern Syria. Proceedings of the TeAI Workshop, Verona, Italy, March 25-26, 2022, Studia Asiana, Firenze: Firenze University Press.
  98. Maner Ç. 2017, From the Konya Plain to the Bolkar Mountains: The 2015-2016 Campaigns of the KEYAR Survey Project, in S.R. Steadman, G. McMahon (eds), The Archaeology of Anatolia. Vol II: Recent Discoveries (2015-2016), New Castle, Cambridge Scholars Publishing: 342-367.
  99. Manuelli F. 2019, Carving the Memory, Altering the Past. PUGNUS-mili and the Earlier Iron Age Rulers at Arslantepe/Malizi (South-Eastern Turkey), in R. Lafer, H. Dolenz, M. Luik (eds), Antiquitates variae. Festschrift für Karl Strobel zum 65. Geburtstag, Internationale Archäologie. Studia honoraria 39, Rahden (Westf.), Marie Leidorf: 227-241.
  100. Manuelli F. 2020, The Regeneration of the Late Bronze Age Traditions and the Formation of the Kingdom of Malizi, in A. Sonne (ed.), Formation, Organization and Development of the Iron Age Societies, Wien, Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: 109-129.
  101. Manuelli F., Mori L. 2016, “The King at the Gate”. Monumental Fortification and the Rise of Local Elites at Arslantepe at the End of the 2nd Millennium BCE, Origini 39/1: 209-241.
  102. Manuelli F., Vignola C., Marzaioli F., Passariello I., Terrasi F. 2021, The beginning of the Iron Age at Arslantepe: A 14C Perspective, Radiocarbon 63/3: 885-903.
  103. Marchetti N. 2014, Bronze Statuettes from the Temples of Karkemish, Orientalia NS 83: 305-320.
  104. Marchetti N. (ed.) 2019-2020, Recent Archaeological Discoveries at Karkemish. Anatomy and Trajectories of a Capital City on the Middle Euphrates, News from the Lands of the Hittites 3-4: 251-400.
  105. Marchetti N., Peker H. 2018, The Stele of Kubaba by Kamani and the Kings of Karkemish in the 9th Century BC, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 108/1: 81-99.
  106. Marchetti N. (ed.) 2019-2020, Recent archaeological discoveries at Karkemish. Anatomy and trajectories of a capital city on the Middle Euphrates, News from the Land of the Hittites 3-4: 251-400.
  107. Massa M., Osborne J. 2022, On the Identity of Hartapu: Textual, Historical and Archaeological Analysis of an Anatolian Iron Age Ruler, Altorientalische Forschungen 49/1: 1-19.
  108. Matessi A. 2016, The Making of Hittite Imperial Landscapes: Territoriality and Balance of Power in South-Central Anatolia during the Late Bronze Age, Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History 3/1: 117-162.
  109. Matessi A., Lovejoy N. forthcoming, Resilient Vines? Religious Motifs and Areal Contacts between Central Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Post-Hittite Period, in M. Pallavidini, C. Coppini, J. Bach (eds), Change, Order, Remembrance: Crisis and Religion in the Ancient Near East,, Münster, Zaphon.
  110. Mazzoni S. 1998, The Late Iron I and Early Iron II Levels, in S.M. Cecchini, S. Mazzoni (eds), Tell Afis (Siria). Scavi sull’acropoli 1988-1992, Ricerche di Archeologia del Vicino Oriente 1, Pisa, ETS: 163-199.
  111. Mazzoni S. 2012, Temples at Tell ‘Afis in Iron Age I-III, in J. Kamlah, H. Michelau (eds), Temple Building and Temple Cult. Architecture and Cultic Paraphernalia of Temples in the Levant (2.-1. Mill. BCE), Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 41, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 24-40.
  112. Mazzoni S. 2014, Tell Afis in the Iron Age: The Temple on the Acropolis, Near Eastern Archaeology 77/1: 44-52.
  113. Mazzoni S. 2015, Open Spaces around the Temples and Their Ritual Use: Archaeological Evidence from the Bronze and Iron Age Levant, in N. Laneri (ed.), Defining the Sacred. Approaches to the Archaeology of Religion in the Near East, Oxford – Philadelphia, Oxbow Books: 118-133.
  114. Mazzoni S. 2019, Iron I Temples at Tell Afis, in F. Briquel Chatonnet, E. Capet, E. Gubel, C. Roche-Hawley (eds), Nuit de pleine lune sur Amurru. Mélanges offerts à Leila Badre, Paris, Paul Geuthner: 307-321.
  115. Melchert, C. 2019, Iron Age Luvian tarrawanni(i)-, in P. S. Avetisyan, R. Dan, Y. H. Grekyan (eds), Over the Mountains and Far Away. Studies in Near Eastern history and archaeology presented to Mirjo Salvini on the occasion of his 80th birthday, Oxford, Archaeopress: 337-345.
  116. Mielke D.P. 2011, Hittite Cities: Looking for a Concept, in H. Genz, D.P. Mielke (eds), Insights into Hittite History and Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven – Paris – Walpole (MA), Peeters: 153-194.
  117. Mielke D.P. 2018, Hittite Fortifications Between Function and Symbolism, in A. Ballmer, M. Fernández-Götz, D.P. Mielke (eds), Understanding Ancient Fortifications. Between Regionality and Connectivity, Oxford – Philadelphia, Oxbow Books: 63-81.
  118. Mora C. 2010, Studies on Ancient Anatolia at Pavia University and the Hittite Lower Land, in L. d’Alfonso, M.E. Balza, C. Mora (eds), Geo-Archaeological Activities in Southern Cappadocia – Turkey: Proceedings of the Meeting Held at Pavia, 20.11.2008, Studia Mediterranea 22, Pavia, Italian University Press: 13-25.
  119. Mora C., Balatti S. 2012, Stelae from Tuwana, in G.B. Lanfranchi, D. Morandi Bonacossi, C. Pappi, S. Ponchia (eds), Leggo! Studies Presented to Frederick Mario Fales on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 527-538.
  120. Neve P. 1982, Büyükkale. Die Bauwerke. Grabungen, 1954-1966, Boğazköy-Ḫattus̆a 12, Berlin, Gebr. Mann Verlag.
  121. Novák M. 2012, The Temple of ‘Ain Dāra in the Context of Imperial and Neo-Hittite Architecture and Art, in J. Kamlah, H. Michelau (eds), Temple Building and Temple Cult. Architecture and Cultic Paraphernalia of Temples in the Levant (2.-1. Mill. BCE), Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 41, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 41-54.
  122. Novák M. 2019-2020, Sirkeli Höyük. A Central Site and Gateway Community in Kawa/Kizzuwatna/Hiyawa, News from the Lands of the Hittites 3-4: 143-168.
  123. Novák M. 2020, Sirkeli Höyük. The Discovery and Exploration of a Complex Urban Landscape in Iron Age Cilicia, in H.G. Yalçın, O. Stegemeier (eds), Metallurgica Anatolica. Festschrift für Ünsal Yalçın anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstags, İstanbul: Ege Yayınları: 209-224.
  124. Ökse A.T. 2011, Open-Air Sanctuaries of the Hittites, in H. Genz, D.P. Mielke (eds), Insights into Hittite History and Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven – Paris – Walpole (MA), Peeters: 219-240.
  125. Ökse A.T., Czichon R.M., Yılmaz M.A. 2021, Cultural Borders at the Northern and Eastern Edges of the Central Anatolian Plateau in the Second and Pre-Classical First Millennia BCE, in L. d’Alfonso, K. Rubinson (eds), Borders in Archaeology: Changing Landscapes in Anatolia and the South Caucasus ca. 3500-500 BCE, Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Supplement 58, Leuven – Boston – Köln, Peeters: 233-284.
  126. Oreshko, R. 2018, Anatolian linguistic influences in Early Greek (1500-800 BC)? Critical observations against sociolinguistic and areal background, Journal of Language Relationship 16/2: 93-118.
  127. Orthmann W. 1971, Untersuchungen zur späthethitischen Kunst, Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 8, Bonn, Rudolf Habelt Verlag.
  128. Orthmann W. 1986, Die säugende Göttin. Zu einem Relief aus Karatepe, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 19/20: 137-143.
  129. Osborne J. 2021, The Syro-Anatolian City-States: An Iron Age Culture, Oxford Studies in the Archaeology of Ancient States, Oxford, University Press.
  130. Otten H. 1964, Der Weg des Hethitischen Staates zum Grossreich, Saeculum 15: 115-124.
  131. Otto A. 2013, Gotteshaus und Allerheiligstes in Syrien und Nordmesopotamien während des 2. Jts. v. Chr., in K. Kaniuth, A. Löhnert, J. Miller, A. Otto, M. Roaf, W. Sallaberger (eds), Tempel im Alten Orient, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz: 355-383.
  132. Özgüç T. 1978, Maşat Höyük kazıları ve çevresindeki araştırmalar/Excavations at Maşat Höyük and Investigations in Its Vicinity, Türk Tarih Kurumu yayınlarından 5, dizi 38, Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.
  133. Özyar A. 1998, Die Schiffsscene aus Karatepe-Aslantaş, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 48: 97-106.
  134. Özyar A. 2003, Architectural Reliefs in Anatolia through Time: Contextualizing the Gate Sculptures of Karatepe-Aslantaş/Azatiwataya, in B. Fischer, H. Genz, E. Jean, K. Köröğlu (eds), Identifying Changes: The Transition from Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and its Neighbouring Regions, İstanbul, Türk Eskiçağ Bilimleri Enstitüsü: 107-114.
  135. Özyar A. 2013, The Writing on the Wall: Reviewing Sculpture and Inscription on the Gates of the Iron Age Citadel of Azatiwataya (Karatepe-Aslantaş), in S. Redford, N. Ergin (eds), Cities and Citadels in Turkey: From the Iron Age to the Seljuks, Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement 40, Leuven – Boston – Köln, Peeters: 115-136.
  136. Petrovich D.N. 2016, Tayinat’s Building XVI: The Religious Dimensions and Significance of a Tripartite Temple at Neo-Assyrian Kunulua, PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto.
  137. Postgate J.N., Thomas D.C. (eds) 2007, Excavations at Kilise Tepe, 1994-98: From Bronze Age to Byzantine in Western Cilicia, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 30, Cambridge – London, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research – British Institute at Ankara.
  138. Pucci, M. 2019, Cultural encounters during the LBII and IAI: Hittites and ‘Pelesets’ in the Amuq (Hatay) Turkey, Asia anteriore antica 1: 169-194.
  139. Ross J.C., Steadman S.R., McMahon G., Adcock S.E., Cannon J.W. 2019, When the Giant Falls: Endurance and Adaptation at Çadır Höyük in the Context of the Hittite Empire and Its Collapse, Journal of Field Archaeology 44/1: 19-39.
  140. Schachner A. 2009, Das 16. Jahrhundert v.Chr. – Eine Zeitenwende im hethitischen Zentralanatolien, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 59: 9-34.
  141. Schachner A. 2011, Hattuscha: auf der Suche nach dem sagenhaften Grossreich der Hethiter, München, Beck.
  142. Schachner A. 2022, Geographical Prerequisites versus Human Behavior: Settlement Geography, Rural Economy, and Ideological Aspects of Anthropogenic Relations with the Natural Environment during the Second Millennium BC in Central Anatolia, in S. de Martino (ed.), Handbook Hittite Empire. Power Structures, Oldenbourg, De Gruyter: 159-202.
  143. Schwemer D. 2022, Religion and Power, in S. de Martino (ed.), Handbook Hittite Empire. Power Structures, Oldenbourg, De Gruyter: 355-418.
  144. Seeher J. 2011, Gods Carved in Stone: The Hittite Rock Sanctuary of Yazılıkaya, 1st edition, İstanbul, Ege Yayınları.
  145. Seeher J. (ed.) 2018, Büyükkaya II. Bauwerke und Befunde der Grabungskampagnen 1952-1955 und 1993.1998, Boğazköy-Ḫattus̆a 27, Berlin – Boston, De Gruyter.
  146. Şenyurt S.Y., Atakan A. 2018, Topada Yazıtına Farklı Bir Bakış: Geç Hitit Döneminde Orta Anadolu’da Güç Dengeleri, Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 22: 95-117.
  147. Simon, Z. 2019, Aramaean Borders: the Hieroglyphic Luwian Evicence, in J. Dušek, J. Mynářová (eds), Aramaean Borders. Defining Aramaean Territories in the 10th-8th Centuries B.C.E., Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 101, Leiden – Boston, Brill: 127-148.
  148. Singer, I. 2012, The Philistines in the North and the Kingdom of Taita, in G. Galil, A. Gilboa, A. M. Maeir, D. Kahn (eds), The Ancient Near East in the 12th-10th Centuries BCE. Culture and History. Proceedings of the International Conference held at the University of Haifa. 2-5 May, 2010, Münster, Ugarit Verlag: 451-471.
  149. Smith M., Wayne P. 2009, The Ugaritic Baal Cycle. Volume II. Introduction with Text, Translation and Commentary of KTU/CAT 1.3-1.4, Vetus Testamentum Supplements 114, Leiden – Boston – Köln, Brill.
  150. Soldi S. 2009, Aramaeans and Assyrians in North-Western Syria: Material Evidence from Tell Afis, Syria 86: 97-118.
  151. Sollee A., Mönninghoff H., Kozal E., Karakaya D., Heim J., Gür S. 2020, The Development of the Southeast Lower Town of Sirkeli Höyük. A Preliminary Assessment based on the 2013-2019 Campaigns, Altorientalische Forschungen 47/2: 215-285.
  152. Starke F. 1996, Zur „Regierung“ des hethitischen Staates, Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und biblische Rechtsgeschichte 2: 140-182.
  153. Strosahl Ph. 2022, Empire and Sacred Space: Temples and Rituals as Nodes of Authority, Community, and Legitimacy at Late Bronze Age Emar, PhD Thesis, University of Pavia.
  154. Summers G.D. 2017, After the Collapse: Continuities and Discontinuities in the Early Iron Age of Central Anatolia, in A. Schachner (ed.), Innovation versus Beharrung. Was Macht den Unterschied des hethitischen Reichs im Anatolien des 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr.?, Byzas 23, İstanbul, Ege Yayınları – Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Abteilung Istanbul: 257-274.
  155. Summers G.D. 2021, Excavations at the Cappadocia Gate, Kerkenes Final Reports 1, Chicago, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
  156. Sürenhagen D. 2001, Dimensionen sakralen Königtums im hethitischen Staat. Einige Bemerkungen zum Forschungsstand, in R.M. Boehmer, J. Maran (eds), Lux Orientis – Archäologie zwischen Asien und Europa. Festschrift Für Harald Hauptmann zum 65. Geburtstag, Rahden (Westf.), Marie Leidorf: 403-412.
  157. Taşyürek A. 1975, Some New Assyrian Rock-Reliefs in Turkey, Anatolian Studies 25, 169-180.
  158. Thames J.T. 2020, The Politics of Ritual Change: The Zukru Festival in the Political History of Late Bronze Age Emar, Leiden – Boston, Brill.
  159. Trameri A. 2020, The Land of Kizzuwatna. History of Cilicia in the Second Millennium BCE until the Hittite Conquest (ca. 2000-1350), PhD Dissertation, New York University.
  160. Ussishkin D. 1969, The Date of the Neo-Hittite Enclosure at Karatepe, Anatolian Studies 19: 121-137.
  161. Ünal A., Girginer K.S. 2010, Tatarlı Höyük Kazılarında Bulunan “Anadolu Hiyeroglifi” Damga Mühür Baskısı, in Ş. Dönmez (ed.), DUB.SAR É.DUB.BA.A. Studies Presented in Honour of Veysel Donbaz, İstanbul, Ege Yaylinari: 275-281.
  162. Ünlü E. 2015, Late Bronze-Early Iron Age Painted Pottery from the Northeast Mediterranean Settlements, in N. Stampolidis, Ç. Maner, K. Kopanias (eds), Nostoi. Indigenous Culture, Migration & Integration in the Aegean Islands & Western Anatolia during the Late Bronze & Early Iron Ages, İstanbul, Koç University Press: 517-529.
  163. van den Hout Th.P.J. 2002, Tombs and Memorials: The (Divine) Stone House and Ḫegur Reconsidered, in K.A. Yener, H.A. Hoffner, S. Dhesi (eds), Recent Developments in Hittite Archaeology and History. Papers in Memory of Hans G. Güterbock, Winona Lake (IN), Eisenbrauns: 73-91.
  164. Venturi F. 2007, La Siria nell’eta delle trasformazioni (XIII-X sec. a.C.). Nuovi contributi dallo scavo di Tell Afis, Studi e Testi Orientali. Serie Archeologica 8, Bologna, CLUEB.
  165. Venturi F. 2020, Tell Afis. The Excavations of Areas E2-E4. Phases V-I. The End of the Late Bronze/ Iron Age I Sequence. Stratigraphy, Pottery and Small Finds, Studi di Archeologia Siriana 4, Firenze, Le Lettere.
  166. Weeden, M. 2013, After the Hittites: The Kingdoms of Karkamish and Palistin in Northern Syria, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 56/2: 1-20.
  167. Weeden, M. 2015, The Land of Walastin at Tell Tayinat, Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires 44: 65-66.
  168. Wightman G.J. 2007, Sacred Spaces: Religious Architecture in the Ancient World, Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Supplement 22, Leuven – Dudley (MA), Peeters.
  169. Wilhelm G. 2011, Combining Textual and Archaeological Evidence of Urban Structures: Hattusa and Sarissa, Mesopotamia 46: 103-108.
  170. Wilhelm G. 2015, The Sacred Landscape of Sarissa, in A. D’Agostino, V. Orsi, G. Torri (eds), Sacred Landscapes of Hittites and Luwians. Proceedings of the International Conference in Honour of Franca Pecchioli Daddi, Florence, February 6th-8th 2014, Studia Asiana 9, Firenze, Firenze University Press: 93-99.
  171. Winter I. 1979, On the Problems of Karatepe: The Reliefs and Their Context, Anatolian Studies 29: 115-151.
  172. Woolley C.L., Barnett R.D. 1952, Carchemish III. Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on behalf of the British Museum. The Excavations in the Inner Town. The Hittite Inscriptions, London, The Trustees of the British Museum.
  173. Yener K.A. 2013, New Excavations at Alalah: The 14th-12th Centuries BC, in K.A. Yener (ed.), Across the Border: Late Bronze-Iron Age Relations Between Syria and Anatolia, Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Supplement 42, Leuven – Paris – Walpole (MA), Peeters: 11-35.
  174. Younger, K. L. 2016, A Political History of the Arameans. From Their Origins to the End of Their Polities, Atlanta, Society of Biblical Literature.
  175. Zimmer-Vorhaus C. 2011, Hittite Temples: Palaces of the Gods, in H. Genz, D.P. Mielke (eds), Insights into Hittite History and Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven – Paris – Walpole (MA), Peeters: 195-218.
PDF
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • Pages: 177-214
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

XML
  • Publication Year: 2023
  • Content License: CC BY 4.0
  • © 2023 Author(s)

Chapter Information

Chapter Title

Rulership and the Gods: The Role of Cultic Institutions in the Late Bronze to Iron Age Transition in Anatolia and Northern Syria

Authors

Lorenzo d'Alfonso, Nathan Lovejoy

Language

English

DOI

10.36253/979-12-215-0042-4.11

Peer Reviewed

Publication Year

2023

Copyright Information

© 2023 Author(s)

Content License

CC BY 4.0

Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Bibliographic Information

Book Title

Administrative Practices and Political Control in Anatolian and Syro-Anatolian Polities in the 2nd and 1st Millennium BCE

Editors

Clelia Mora, Giulia Torri

Peer Reviewed

Number of Pages

216

Publication Year

2023

Copyright Information

© 2023 Author(s)

Content License

CC BY 4.0

Metadata License

CC0 1.0

Publisher Name

Firenze University Press

DOI

10.36253/979-12-215-0042-4

ISBN Print

979-12-215-0041-7

eISBN (pdf)

979-12-215-0042-4

Series Title

Studia Asiana

Series ISSN

1974-7837

Series E-ISSN

2612-808X

307

Fulltext
downloads

206

Views

Export Citation

1,292

Open Access Books

in the Catalogue

1,611

Book Chapters

2,988,932

Fulltext
downloads

3,619

Authors

from 745 Research Institutions

of 59 Nations

59

scientific boards

from 325 Research Institutions

of 41 Nations

1,138

Referees

from 343 Research Institutions

of 36 Nations